OS/2 Frequently Asked Questions List 
 User's Edition 
 Release 2.1A
 June 14, 1993 
 Compiled by Timothy F. Sipples
For changes, suggestions, or additions please mail 
sip1@kimbark.uchicago.edu or write:  
 Timothy F. Sipples 
 Center for Population Economics 
 University of Chicago 
 1101 East 58th Street 
 Chicago, IL  60637
I cannot acknowledge your contribution(s), but they are greatly 
Mention of a product does not constitute an endorsement.  Customers outside 
the United States should not necessarily rely on 800 telephone numbers, 
page numbers, part numbers, or upgrade policies contained in this List.  
Electronic mail addresses are in Internet form; use addressing appropriate 
to your mail system.  

This List is freely distributable.  If you redistribute the List, please 
include all the original files.  If you publish the List, in full or in 
part, please forward a copy of the finished publication to Timothy F. 
Sipples at the above address.  

This List is updated monthly and is distributed through various computer 
networks and online services, including the Internet, CompuServe, GEnie, 
and many BBSes.  

Both ASCII text and OS/2 Information Presentation Facility (INF) versions 
of the List are provided.  To view the INF version of the List, go to any 
OS/2 command line prompt (e.g.  double click on "OS/2 Window") and type:  


The ASCII text version may be viewed using any text editor, word processor, 
or file listing utility.  The text version is intended to answer any 
questions you may have before actually obtaining and using OS/2.  You will 
find that the INF version provides a much more attractive List, with 
hypertext links, fast indexing, and, increasingly, illustrations.  

If you have not received both files (OS2FAQ.INF and OS2FAQ.TXT), please ask 
your system operator to make sure he/she is receiving the correct and 
complete package every month.  

 Related information: 
 (0.1) Release Notes 

(0.1) Release Notes

Text which has been revised or updated since the last release will appear 
in the same color as this paragraph.  Unfortunately, this form of marking 
will not be evident in the plain text or hardcopy versions of the List.  If 
anyone has any strong objections to this form of revision marking, please 
let me know.  (I have several ideas on how to improve this method, but I 
would appreciate your feedback.)  

At some point in the future I plan to add Master Help Index entries.  I 
also hope to add a glossary of terms.  

Substantial changes have been made to this List to reflect new information 
on IBM OS/2 Version 2.1.  Hence, the version number of the List has changed 
(to match OS/2's version number).  Revision marking is omitted in this 
release since so much has changed since the last release.  BBS operators 
and archive maintainers:  please retain Version 2.0L of this List, the last 
version to deal specifically with OS/2 Version 2.0.  

Please contact the author [See (0.0) Introduction and Credits] if you would 
like to volunteer to redistribute the List to BIX.  

 Related information: 
 (0.0) Introduction and Credits 
 (0.2) Recent Developments 
 (0.3) Questions in this Release 

(0.2) Recent Developments

See (0.4) Special Report on OS/2 2.1 for complete information on IBM's new 
version of OS/2.  

IBM will be holding the next Personal Software Products (PSP) Technical 
Interchange conference (formerly the OS/2 Technical Interchange) in 
Orlando, Florida, from August 29 through September 2. Call 800-872-7109 or 
508-443-4990 for more information.  

See (3.10) Special Software Offers for additional software specials and for 
more information on some of the following:  

o WordPerfect is now accepting orders for WordPerfect 5.2 for OS/2 for 
delivery in the next few weeks.  WordPerfect for OS/2 features integration 
with the Workplace Shell, multithreaded background printing, and background 
conversion of documents stored in older formats.  

o Two new on-the-fly disk compression packages are now available.  
Proportional Software's DCF/2 Version 1.1 is both HPFS and FAT compatible 
and is certified for both OS/2 2.0 and 2.1.  Stacker for OS/2 and DOS (from 
Stac Electronics, list price $199) provides compression on FAT drives only, 
but backward compatibility with the DOS version is assured.  

o VisPro/REXX, the visual application builder for OS/2, is now shipping.  
VisPro/REXX, produced by HockWare (formerly UCANDU Software), offers an 
environment which is tightly integrated with the Workplace Shell.  
Applications are built by dragging GUI elements (such as sliders, 
containers, and buttons) to a form.  A series of simple menus help to 
establish relationships between these GUI elements.  VisPro/REXX 
automatically generates the REXX code necessary to write the application.  
A VisPro/REXX application can be saved to a simple .EXE file (which has 
only about 90K of overhead) and distributed royalty-free.  VisPro/REXX is 
available for $299 direct from HockWare (telephone 919-387-7391 or FAX 
919-380-0757) or at a discount from such dealers as The Programmer's Shop.  

o IBM is close to finishing a trio of new, powerful multimedia development 
tools.  Ultimedia Builder/2 features a graphical filmstrip interface with 
authoring and playback buttons to help users build applications that 
feature audio, video, still images, and view interaction.  It offers a 
powerful multimedia scripting language, and a state-of-the-art multimedia 
tutorial and online help are available.  Ultimedia Workplace/2 allows you 
to manage multimedia objects simply and visually by providing browsable 
icons for each object.  It provides natural extensions to the Workplace 
Shell and allows you to define and enter descriptive fields for multimedia 
objects.  UW/2 will integrate with several relational databases.  Ultimedia 
Perfect Image/2 offers easy capture and enhancement of images for use in 
multimedia presentations.  It lets users enhance, retouch, or rearrange 
images in popular true color file formats.  To obtain a CD-ROM containing 
the final beta versions of these tools, or to inquire about the retail 
products, telephone 415-694-3049.  

o Corel Systems has reduced the price of Corel Draw 2.5 for OS/2 to $199 

o IBM is now shipping beta Remote LAN Access code.  A pair of new 
applications provides dial-in capability to OS/2 LANs.  For more 
information on this beta program, ask your IBM representative to submit on 
online request on IBM's VM Network to BETASRUS at AUSVM1, FAX 512-838-4002, 
or phone 800-IBM-3040 (800-561-5293 in Canada).  

o Through September 1, Sytron is offering its Sytos Rebound add-on to Sytos 
Plus for just $79.  Rebound provides users of Sytos Plus with a character 
mode restore program.  Now it is not necessary to reinstall OS/2 to perform 
a system restoration from backup.  Sytron can be reached at 800-877-0016 or 

o Watcom will release VX REXX for OS/2 this month at an introductory price 
of $99.  VX REXX is another visual builder for OS/2 REXX.  Contact Watcom 
at 800-265-4555 or FAX 519-747-4971 for more information.  

o IBM is now offering developers access to their new Continuous Speech 
Series for OS/2.  Beta level software and an array of support services and 
discounts are available for developers who wish to produce applications 
based on IBM's new OS/2- and AIX-based continuous speech recognition 
software, the most advanced technology of its kind.  For more information 
on IBM Continuous Speech Series, contact the Developer's Program at (404) 
 Related information: 
 (0.3)  Questions in this Release 
 (0.4)  Special Report on OS/2 2.1
 (3.10) Special Software Offers 

(0.3) Questions in this Release

The following questions are addressed in this release:  

 (1.0)  Fundamentals 

      (1.1)  What is OS/2? 

      (1.2)  What are the differences between versions? 

      (1.3)  How good is OS/2 2.1's DOS and Windows compatibility? 

      (1.4)  Where can I buy OS/2, and how much does it cost? 

      (1.5) Why should I use HPFS?  What does it offer me?  Does it work
            with DOS?

  (2.0)  Hardware 

      (2.1) What hardware do I need to run IBM OS/2 2.1?  Do I need a 

      (2.2)  Will OS/2 2.1 work with my SuperVGA adapter? 

      (2.3)  Will OS/2 2.1 work with my printer? 

      (2.4)  Can I use COM3 and COM4 in OS/2 2.1? 

      (2.5)  Are there any specific hardware recommendations? 

      (2.6)  Can I use more than 16 MB of RAM? 

      (2.7) What device drivers are available that aren't included with

  (3.0)  Software 

      (3.1)  What applications are available for OS/2? 

      (3.2)  Where can I obtain OS/2 shareware and freeware? 

      (3.3)  What are the "must have" shareware and freeware titles? 

      (3.4)  Is there a Norton Utilities for OS/2? 

      (3.5)  I would like to set up an OS/2 BBS.  What is available? 

      (3.6)  What do I need for OS/2 multimedia applications? 

      (3.7)  Should I worry about viruses when running OS/2 2.1? 

      (3.8)  What networking products are available for OS/2 2.1? 

      (3.9)  What is Extended Services? 

      (3.10)  Are there any special software offers I should know about? 

      (3.11)  What backup software is available? 

      (3.12) What multiuser extensions and security options are available?

  (4.0)  Installation, Maintenance, and Support 

      (4.1)  I am having trouble installing OS/2 2.1.  What should I do? 

      (4.2)  I can't install OS/2 from Drive B.  What's wrong? 

      (4.3)  What is the best way to partition my hard disk for OS/2? 

      (4.4) How do I access HPFS partitions on my hard drive without 
            booting from the hard drive?  I'm getting error messages now --
            how do I "repair" my hard disk?

      (4.5)  How can I get answers to my OS/2 questions? 

      (4.6) What are CSDs, how do I tell which I have, and where do I get

      (4.7)  Which online services support OS/2, and how do I join? 

      (4.8)  Are there any OS/2 user groups? 

      (4.9)  What OS/2 books and magazines are available? 

      (4.10)  How do I report an OS/2 problem to IBM? 

      (4.11)  What OS/2 BBSes can I dial? 

  (5.0)  Using OS/2 

      (5.1)  I'm a Unix wizard.  How do I make OS/2 resemble Unix? 

      (5.2) I prefer Windows.  How do I make OS/2 2.1 resemble Windows (or
            OS/2 1.3)?

      (5.3) Sometimes OS/2 2.1 will freeze when I run an application.  What
            do I do?

      (5.4) How do I start a background process from the OS/2 command line?

      (5.5)  How do I add new Adobe Type Manager typefaces? 

      (5.6)  How do I tweak OS/2 2.1 for maximum performance? 

      (5.7)  How do I measure OS/2 performance and memory usage? 

      (5.8) My background bitmap does not display correctly.  What's wrong?

      (5.9)  How do I boot a real version of DOS from within OS/2 2.1? 

      (5.10)  Are there any clever tricks that apply to OS/2 2.1? 

      (5.11)  How do I use REXX?  What does it do? 

      (5.12)  What ANSI escape sequences can be used? 

  (6.0)  Miscellaneous 

      (6.1)  What can I do to promote OS/2? 

      (6.2)  How can I create INF files? 

(0.4) Special Report on OS/2 2.1

On May 18, IBM announced OS/2 Version 2.1, slated for delivery in the 
United States on June 14 to all users.  

Multimedia Presentation Manager/2 (MMPM/2), the OS/2 multimedia extensions, 
are now a part of the base operating system (included at no extra charge).  
MMPM/2 includes support for sound output (including WAV and MIDI format 
files), software motion video (Ultimotion and Intel Indeo formats), and 
other advanced multimedia features.  

Ultimotion software motion video is the most advanced on the market for 
PCs, providing on most hardware, without any assist, up to 320x240 pixel 
video images displayed at up to 30 frames per second in 256 colors with an 
8- or 16-bit soundtrack.  These video images are properly synchronized with 
the sound output thanks to OS/2's preemptive multitasking and 
multithreading architecture.  Background tasks continue to operate without 
loss of foreground responsiveness to most multimedia operations.  

OS/2 2.1 includes drivers for the MediaVision ProAudio Spectrum series of 
adapters, Creative Labs SoundBlaster series, and IBM M-Audio.  Other 
drivers are expected to be released in parallel with OS/2 2.1 on vendor 
bulletin boards.  

Note:  SoundBlaster clones may not operate properly with the Creative Labs 
drivers in MMPM/2.  MediaVision is working on a simple patch (to enable 
their ThunderBoard to work with the Creative Labs SoundBlaster driver), and 
that patch should work with other SoundBlaster clones.  

IBM will also be releasing a driver which provides limited fidelity sound 
output on the standard PC speaker.  This driver does require a substantial 
amount of processor attention, so background tasks may experience decreased 
responsiveness.  This speaker driver will be released to OS/2 bulletin 
boards, CompuServe, the Internet, and other electronic sources, and it 
should be available on or about June 14.  It will provide MMPM/2 sound 
output for those customers who do not have dedicated sound hardware.  

The shrinkwrap OS/2 2.1 package now includes over 600 pages of hardcopy 
documentation, with extensive information on installation and use of the 
operating system.  Moreover, the online documentation (particularly the 
online Command Reference) has been enhanced.  

Beta testers of OS/2 2.1 will recall that FAX/PM (an applet which could 
send one page faxes using Class 2 faxmodems) was part of the product.  This 
applet has been pulled from the final release of OS/2 2.1 because it was 
found to be far too limiting.  Instead, a new multimedia game, Mahjongg, 
has been provided.  Follow the instructions in the OS/2 2.1 README file to 
install Mahjongg.  

OS/2 2.1 adds several new SuperVGA drivers, all with so-called "seamless" 
Windows support (meaning that Windows applications can run alongside OS/2 
and DOS applications on the OS/2 Workplace Shell desktop).  The built-in 
SuperVGA support extends to display adapters based on most Tseng 4000, 
Cirrus Logic, Trident 8900, ATI, Paradise/Western Digital, IBM, and 
Headland/Video7 chipsets.  Both the 8514/A and XGA drivers also support 
"seamless" Windows.  Text window scrolling speed for SuperVGA adapters has 
been improved.  OS/2 2.1 has also routinized the procedure for using video 
mode setting utilities (to set customized refresh rates or reset registers 

Many drivers for other SuperVGA adapters based on other chipsets are 
expected to be released on or shortly after the June 14th delivery date, 
through vendor bulletin boards and other electronic sources.  

OS/2 2.1 adds support for Windows 3.1 applications, including enhanced mode 
applications.  The OS/2 exclusive features (such as the ability to start 
multiple Win-OS/2 desktops) are preserved.  Also, DOS and OS/2 applications 
can be started from the Win-OS/2 Program Manager and from other Windows 
applications.  Windows 3.1 features, such as OLE and the Windows Multimedia 
Extensions, are built into OS/2 2.1, as are most of the Windows 3.1 
applets.  VxD (virtual Windows drivers) are not supported under OS/2 2.1 
(affecting only a couple applications, notably MathCAD 4.0 and Microsoft 
Visual C++).  

Support for PCMCIA adapters, Advanced Power Management (for portable and 
notebook computers), additional printers (including the DeskJet series and 
HP LaserJet 4), most CD-ROM drives, and more SCSI adapters have been added.  
Refinements have been made to the Workplace Shell, including drag and drop 
icon assignment.  Several new background bitmap images are provided for 
tiled backgrounds (like "bricks," "columns," and so forth).  

OS/2 2.1 will be available in three media types:  3.5 inch diskettes, 5.25 
inch diskettes, and CD-ROM.  The CD-ROM version includes two 3.5 inch and 
two 5.25 inch "bootstrap" diskettes.  These diskettes allow installation of 
OS/2 2.1 from the CD-ROM when a native OS/2 driver is in use.  If an OS/2 
driver is not available for a particular CD-ROM drive and adapter 
combination, a full set of installation diskettes can be built under DOS 
from the CD-ROM.  This capability will be familiar to beta testers of OS/2 
Version 2.1.  Extensive documentation has been included in the regular 
manual to enable the beginner to successfully install OS/2 from this new 
media type.  (The CD-ROM and diskette versions of OS/2 2.1 contain the same 
documentation, save for an extra one page insert in the CD-ROM package.)  

The CD-ROM version is the preferred version of OS/2, since it enables 
quicker installation and since it includes extra features not found on the 
diskette versions (namely more sample software motion video clips and extra 
sound files).  The CD-ROM version is also less expensive to manufacture, 
and IBM passes on the savings.  It is also less susceptible to damage by 
stray magnetic fields, for example.  

OS/2 2.1, like OS/2 2.0, is available in an upgrade version for DOS and 
OS/2 users.  This upgrade version includes a "sniffer" utility.  In order 
to install the upgrade edition, you must have any version of DOS (PC-DOS, 
DR-DOS, or MS-DOS) or OS/2 (IBM OS/2, Microsoft OS/2, or any other version) 
installed on your hard disk.  The first time you install the OS/2 2.1 
Upgrade Edition the "sniffer" will examine your hard disk to see if you 
have one of these operating systems.  If you do, a file will be written to 
Diskette 1 of the installation set (or the second bootstrap diskette if 
installing from CD-ROM) which will make the Upgrade Edition identical to 
the non-upgrade package.  In other words, once the "sniffer" has verified 
that a previous operating system is present, it will not attempt to 
interfere with any subsequent installation.  This procedure prevents mishap 
in the event that the contents of the hard disk are lost due to some 
catastrophic failure -- OS/2 2.1 Upgrade Edition can be reinstalled without 
any previous operating system on the hard disk.  

OS/2 beta testers may install the Upgrade Edition over their existing beta 
system, but IBM recommends that they reformat the hard drive early in the 
installation, when prompted.  (The "sniffer" will disable itself after 
seeing the OS/2 2.1 beta code.)  

Unofficially, you may install OS/2 2.1 without reformatting.  This 
procedure should only be undertaken by someone who is very familiar with 
OS/2.  Start by booting the OS/2 2.1 Installation Diskette, then insert 
Diskette 1 when prompted.  At the next prompt, press ESC.  You should then 
be left at the command line.  Leave Diskette 1 in Drive A. 

Execute the following commands:  


[You should log to the drive where OS/2 is installed.  This example assumes 
Drive C.] 
 ATTRIB -r -h -s \* /s
 DEL \OS2*
 DELTREE \Desktop
 DELTREE \Nowhere
 DELTREE \Delete
[Note that the second DELTREE command should refer to your OS/2 desktop 
directory, whatever its name.] Then proceed with installation as directed.  

DELTREE is a utility that comes as part of the GammaTech Utilities.  It 
deletes a directory and all its contents (including any subdirectories).  A 
similar function can be performed using the GNU file utilities ("RM -rf 
....").  If you do not have such a utility you will have to use the DEL and 
RD commands several times to eliminate all the directories listed in the 
DELTREE lines, above.  

Do not attempt to perform the above steps under DOS.  Note that you may 
want to run CHKDSK from an OS/2 diskette boot (as directed in this List) 
prior to installation of OS/2 2.1.  

Do not attempt to migrate your INI files unless the utility you use (e.g.  
WPSBackup, DeskMan/2) is specifically certified for migration of beta INI 
files to the released version of OS/2 2.1.  (Note that in OS/2 2.1 the INI 
files may now be copied using the COPY command, even while OS/2 2.1 itself 
is running.)  

The "sniffer" is satisfied if you have performed a SYS C:  to your hard 
disk from DOS, or, in the case of OS/2 2.0, if you have completed 
installation through the second insertion of the Installation Diskette (and 
the request to remove the Installation Diskette to reboot).  Thus, you do 
not have to go to great lengths to satisfy the "sniffer" in the Upgrade 
Edition, even if you are starting from an empty hard disk for some reason.  
(The "sniffer" is also satisfied if it sees beta OS/2 code.)  

In the United States, IBM has priced OS/2 2.1 extremely competitively.  
Moreover, discounts for upgrades from OS/2 apply to any previous version of 
OS/2 (excluding beta releases), including OS/2 versions from Microsoft and 
non-IBM OEMs, including Version 1.x of OS/2.  Through the telephone number 
800-3-IBM-OS2, IBM is now accepting orders for OS/2 2.1 for shipment on 
June 14.  OS/2 2.1 on diskette (Upgrade Edition) costs $119.  On CD-ROM, 
the price is $99.  Both prices include shipping.  A rebate coupon will be 
enclosed in the package.  Return the coupon with the first page from your 
OS/2 manual and you will receive a rebate check for $30.  IBM is equipped 
to send your rebate check within 24 hours of receipt of the rebate form and 
manual page.  Non-upgrade pricing is also available; call for details.  
Additional licenses cost $69 (with a $10 rebate available to users 
upgrading from OS/2).  These prices are subject to change 90 days after 
June 14.  

IBM strongly encourages users to purchase OS/2 2.1 from dealers.  Pricing 
is expected to be substantially lower at software dealers such as Egghead 
Discount Software.  Initial reports indicate that, for users upgrading from 
OS/2, software dealer pricing is typically under $50 for the CD-ROM version 
and under $70 for the diskette version (after rebate).  Some dealers will 
even handle all the rebate paperwork for you (provided you bring in the 
necessary OS/2 proof of purchase), automatically reducing the price at the 

This pricing strategy is designed to encourage software dealers to carry 
OS/2 2.1, to provide even more visibility for what is expected to be an 
extremely successful product.  Shifting demand for OS/2 2.1 to dealers is 
likely to encourage those same dealers to carry more OS/2 applications (as 
well as the operating system itself).  

Most software dealers will have OS/2 2.1 product available for purchase on 
June 14.  You should contact your local software dealer by telephone right 
now to reserve your copy.  (You should avoid calling 800 numbers; the local 
dealer will know the most about local availability for June 14.)  

Technical support for OS/2 2.1 has been enhanced.  The same, free 800 
number support made available for OS/2 2.0 is also available for OS/2 2.1 
(for up to 60 days following your first call).  Each copy of OS/2 includes 
the 60 days of free support, so customers with multiple copies can 
effectively get more free support.  The 800 number will now be dedicated to 
OS/2 support, and your call will be directed more quickly and efficiently.  
IBM will continue to work to enhance the support available through 
electronic means (such as CompuServe, the OS/2 BBS, the Internet, and other 
electronic forums).  

IBM's marketing efforts have been expanded for OS/2 2.1.  You will see more 
(and improved) advertising in both trade publications and mass market 
general publications.  This new wave of advertising kicked off on Monday, 
May 10.  

Simultaneous with the release of OS/2 2.1, IBM is now offering a CD-ROM 
containing the complete suite of OS/2 and OS/2-related documentation in 
electronic form.  This one stop source for OS/2 documentation (including 
programming information, information on OS/2-related products such as LAN 
Server, MMPM/2 information, and other electronic publications) is in Book 
Reader format, and an OS/2 Book Reader program is provided on the CD-ROM.  
This CD-ROM is available for $49 from the 800-3-IBM-OS2 telephone number in 
the United States.  

Also, IBM is releasing the OS/2 2.1 Programmer's Toolkit.  This updated 
Toolkit (now part of C Set ++) provides utilities and programming 
information for developing the best OS/2 applications.  Call IBM's OS/2 
Hotline for information on the Toolkit, or ask your local software dealer.  

IBM believes in supporting its customers to the best of its abilities.  
That is why IBM will be releasing another Service Pak for OS/2 Version 2.0.  
While IBM strongly encourages users to upgrade to OS/2 Version 2.1, some 
users may wish to continue running OS/2 Version 2.0.  OS/2 2.1 provides 
several new features, and the new Service Pak for OS/2 2.0 will not be 
providing such features (such as MMPM/2, Windows 3.1 compatibility, 
Advanced Power Management, support for PCMCIA adapters, and so on), but it 
will fix all outstanding bugs found in the product to date.  This new 
Service Pak will be made available through electronic means (such as 
CompuServe and the Internet), and it will also be available for a nominal 
charge on diskette direct from IBM.  Expect this Service Pak by the end of 

Large customers who wish to purchase licenses for 1000 or more copies of 
OS/2 2.1 may be allowed to obtain OS/2 2.1 without Windows 3.1 support.  
Since Microsoft receives royalties on Win-OS/2 3.1, elimination of this 
code can reduce the cost over a large number of copies.  Large customers 
who wish to pursue this avenue should speak with their IBM representative.  
This offer is not available to smaller customers since IBM cannot supply 
custom OS/2 2.1 configurations at a competitive price in smaller 

OS/2 2.1 pricing and availability will vary from country to country to some 
extent.  Contact your local IBM office or IBM dealer for details.  For 
example, in the United Kingdom OS/2 2.1 upgrades are available from the 
International OS/2 User Group for 69 pounds plus VAT and shipping.  

Northgate, Unisys, AST, and ALR join the ranks of major system vendors who 
have agreed to preload OS/2 on request on new systems.  Dell, Tangent, and 
Ariel Design will also preload OS/2 on their new systems on request.  

Since OS/2 2.1 is less expensive on CD-ROM and offers several extra 
multimedia samples in that format, interest in purchasing CD-ROM drives has 
increased.  The advice found in other sections of this List applies.  As a 
general rule of thumb, choose a SCSI-2 compliant CD-ROM drive that supports 
audio discs, ISO 9660/High Sierra data discs, CD-ROM/XA, and Kodak Photo 
CD.  For the adapter, choose an Adaptec, Future Domain, DPT, or IBM for 
easiest, "out of the box" support.  External CD-ROM drives are generally 
the safer investment.  Compare drives according to data transfer speed (the 
higher the better) and average access time (the lower the number, in 
milliseconds, the better).  This advice applies to new purchases.  If you 
already have a CD-ROM drive (especially the non-SCSI Sony, Phillips, and 
Mitsumi varieties), check CompuServe or other electronic sources for the 
appropriate OS/2 driver.  

(1.0) What is OS/2?

 What is OS/2? 

OS/2 is an advanced operating system for PCs and PS/2s with an 80286 
processor or better.  It was codeveloped by Microsoft and IBM and 
envisioned as the successor to DOS.  

It was designed from the ground up with preemptive multitasking and 
multithreading in mind.  "Preemptive multitasking" means that the operating 
system is responsible for allocating processor time to the one or more 
applications which are running.  (Cooperative multitasking, as found in 
Microsoft Windows or the Macintosh's System 7, requires that each 
application surrender the processor after a certain amount of time.  If one 
application refuses to yield, all the other applications stop running.)  
"Multithreading" means that programs can start subtasks which will then be 
executed by the operating system in the background.  For example, a word 
processor may create a separate thread (subtask) to handle printing or 
saving to disk.  When the user asks the word processor to perform one of 
these tasks, the word processor creates a new thread and control returns to 
the word processor (and the user) immediately.  The subtask is executed by 
the operating system in the background.  The user is then free to ask the 
word processor to perform another task without waiting for the thread to 
complete.  Applications which utilitize multithreading can be much more 
responsive to the user.  

OS/2 also protects applications from one another (a single misbehaved 
program will not typically disrupt the entire system), supports all 
addressable physical RAM, and supplies virtual memory to applications as 
requested, breaking DOS's 640K barrier.  

An OS/2 demonstration diskette (which will run on any PC with VGA or 
better, and DOS or OS/2) is available from IBM by calling 800-3-IBM-OS2.  
The OS/2 2.1 demo diskette may also be downloaded; see (3.2) Shareware and 
Freeware Sources.  

 Related information: 
 (1.2) Differences Between Versions 
 (1.3) DOS and Windows Compatibility 
 (3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources 
 (3.9) Extended Services 

(1.2) Differences Between Versions

 What are the differences between versions? 

o IBM OS/2 Version 2.1 is the latest release of OS/2, offering Windows 3.1 
compatibility, multimedia support (including software motion video), and 
more device drivers.  With Version 2.1 IBM has ended the practice of 
including extra features in its own, preinstalled versions of OS/2 2.0 that 
were not found in the off-the-shelf package.  

o IBM OS/2 Version 2.0 is the first release of OS/2 which will run only on 
machines with an 80386SX processor or better.  With this release IBM 
started developing OS/2 (and its Intel and non-Intel-based successors) 
independently but continued to involve third party PC manufacturers in its 
testing.  Improvements included an object-oriented Workplace Shell (WPS); a 
multiple operating system boot mechanism; better DOS and Windows support 
[See (1.3) DOS and Windows Compatibility]; new 32-bit programming 
interfaces; support for more than 16 MB of physical RAM [See (2.6) More 
Than 16 MB RAM]; and more third party device drivers.  OS/2 1.x 
applications, unmodified, still run under OS/2 2.0.  

o IBM OS/2 Version 1.3 is the last release of OS/2 to operate on PCs with 
80286 CPUs.  This version introduced built-in Adobe Type Manager (ATM) [See 
(5.5) Adobe Type Manager], providing scalable typefaces for screen and 
printer.  Procedures Language/2 (REXX), a powerful batch-oriented 
programming language, became a part of Standard Edition with this release.  
[See (5.11) REXX.] (A few OEMs are shipping Microsoft OS/2 Version 1.3, but 
Microsoft has ceded all OS/2 development to IBM.)  

o OS/2 Version 1.2 was the first to incorporate the High Performance File 
System (HPFS) [See (1.5) High Performance File System].  With this release 
IBM OS/2 added a dual boot mechanism and IBM Extended Edition [See (3.9) 
Extended Services] introduced REXX.  

o OS/2 Version 1.1 was the first to include the Presentation Manager (PM) 
GUI/API.  Microsoft OEM versions added a dual boot mechanism with this 

o OS/2 Version 1.0, introduced in late 1987, was the first release of OS/2.  
Task switching was accomplished using a character-based shell and limited 
DOS compatibility was provided.  
  Related information: 
  (1.1)  What is OS/2?
  (1.3)  DOS and Windows Compatibility 
  (2.6)  More Than 16 MB RAM 
  (3.9)  Extended Services 
  (5.5)  Adobe Type Manager 
  (5.11) REXX 

(1.3) DOS and Windows Compatibility

 How good is OS/2 2.1's DOS and Windows compatibility? 

OS/2 1.x [See (1.2) Differences Between Versions] justifiably earned a 
reputation for poor DOS compatibility.  Since it was hampered by the 80286, 
it could not run more than one DOS application at a time.  

The situation changed dramatically with OS/2 2.0, and Version 2.1 adds 
further refinements.  Version 2.1 preemptively multitasks DOS and Windows 
(standard and enhanced mode) applications in separate, protected sessions, 
without purchasing either environment.  

OS/2 2.1 provides a complete DOS emulation equivalent to DOS 5.0.  The 
operating system can provide each DOS application with up to 32 MB of EMS 
4.0 (expanded memory), 16 MB of XMS 2.0 (extended memory), and/or 512 MB of 
DPMI 0.95 (DOS Protected Mode Interface extended memory), all from its pool 
of physical and/or virtual memory (meaning you do not have to have as much 
RAM in your system as your applications request).  These limits are in 
addition to the up to 730K free conventional memory supplied to each DOS 
application, even after mouse and network drivers [See (3.8) Networking 
Products] are loaded.  As in DOS 5.0, DOS code and device drivers may be 
loaded into high memory.  A 386 memory manager like QEMM is not needed -- 
these features are provided by OS/2 2.1 directly.  

The DOS emulation allows customization of device driver sets -- each DOS 
application shares a systemwide CONFIG.SYS and the equivalent of its own 
CONFIG.SYS.  Also, there is a systemwide AUTOEXEC.BAT file; however, batch 
commands particular to each DOS application can be invoked using separate, 
application-specific AUTOEXEC.BAT files.  And many DOS Settings are 
provided to fine tune [See (5.6) Performance Tuning] each DOS/Windows 
application's behavior (e.g.  IDLE_SENSITIVITY).  Most of the popular 
DOS/Windows applications on your hard disk will be migrated automatically 
when you install OS/2 2.1.  

In addition, OS/2 2.1 will boot one or more specific versions of DOS in 
separate sessions, to assist in running particularly difficult applications 
(e.g.  DOS networks, MSCDEX).  So, for example, it is possible to multitask 
DOS 3.3, DOS 4.0, DOS 5.0, emulated DOS, and Desqview running atop DOS, all 
in separate sessions, either windowed or full screen, all with the same 
and/or separate device drivers, TSRs, environment variables, etc.  DOS boot 
images may be stored on a hard disk.  These procedures are described in the 
online Command Reference (under VMDISK), Master Help Index, and in the 
Installation Guide (Appendix E).  [See also (5.9) Specific DOS Sessions.] 

Standard graphics modes [ generally up to the resolution of the desktop; 
See (2.2) SuperVGA Support] are supported in DOS windows, as are selectable 
text mode fonts.  Cut/paste to/from windowed DOS applications is supported 
(to/from other DOS, OS/2, and Windows applications), including graphics 
cut/paste.  Theoretically, OS/2 2.1 can run up to 240 simultaneous 
DOS/Windows sessions; the practical maximum depends on system resources.  

OS/2 2.1 will, in fact, run virtually all DOS applications in existence, 
including notorious ones such as Microsoft Flight Simulator, Wing 
Commander, Maple, MatLab (Version 3.5k or later), and others.  Those that 
do not run generally fall into the following categories:  

1. Programs that use Virtual Control Program Interface (VCPI) memory 
extenders or other extenders which require direct access to 80386 control 
registers.  Since such applications are also all but incompatible with 
Windows, most vendors have updates for DPMI compatibility; 

2. Applications which attempt to directly address the physical sectors of 
an OS/2 managed nonremoveable hard disk drive.  Such programs include 
UnErase in Norton Utilities [See (3.4) Disk Utilities].  Fortunately OS/2 
2.1 has a built-in UnDelete feature which is more robust than Norton's 
approach.  (Consult the online Command Reference for information on how to 
enable UNDELETE); 

3. Timing sensitive DOS applications.  Certain DOS programs that generate 
digitized sound through the PC's internal speaker may have distorted sound.  
High speed, real time data collection may be compromised.  These problems 
can often be minimized or even eliminated using OS/2 2.1's DOS Settings.  

4. Certain DOS programming debuggers.  DOS applications running under OS/2 
2.1 are not permitted to access debug registers DR0-DR7 from a DOS session.  
Also, DOS debuggers will not be able to set hardware breakpoints, and all 
read/write operations to debug registers in virtual 8086 mode will be 
See (3.11) Backup Software for information on OS/2 backup issues.  

DOS-based disk caching software is not required since OS/2 includes a 
built-in, highly configurable, efficient disk cache.  

DOS programs running under OS/2 2.1 are extremely fast.  A single DOS 
application (no other applications open) running full screen under OS/2 2.1 
typically achieves 95-97% of the performance it would have under native 
DOS.  If the DOS application performs any disk I/O it can actually operate 
up to several times faster than it would if running under native DOS.  

If pure DOS is absolutely required, OS/2 2.1 includes a utility called the 
Boot Manager.  The Boot Manager can provide a listing of all the operating 
systems available on the system and will allow selection of any one at 
startup, with a default after timeout.  The OS/2 1.x DualBoot method is 
still available as well.  Consult the Installation Guide for instructions 
on how to use Boot Manager or DualBoot.  Note that OS/2 2.1 need not be 
installed on Drive C -- it can reside on other volumes [See (4.3) Hard Disk 

Compatibility with Windows, a popular DOS extender, is provided by 
Win-OS/2, an environment based on Microsoft's Windows source code.  It runs 
Windows 3.x enhanced mode and standard mode applications under OS/2 2.1, 
either on a full screen Windows desktop (with the familiar Program Manager 
and one or more Windows applications) or "seamlessly," alongside OS/2 
applications on the Workplace Shell desktop.  "Seamless" operation is 
available in VGA, many SuperVGA, 8514/A, and XGA resolutions with OS/2 2.1 
as it ships.  [See (2.2) SuperVGA Support.] 

Several icon conversion utilities can convert Windows icons for use by the 
OS/2 Icon Editor and/or OS/2-specific programs [See (3.2) Shareware and 
Freeware Sources].  (No conversion is necessary if the icons are to be used 
with Windows programs running under OS/2 2.1.)  

OS/2 2.1 directly provides all Windows enhanced mode features save one:  
support for Windows virtual drivers (VxD).  Only two applications are 
affected:  MathCAD 4.0 and Microsoft Visual C++.  Services provided by 
WINMEM32.DLL are supported.  

Windows applications are well integrated into the overall OS/2 Workplace 
Shell environment with DDE and Clipboard hooks, and OLE (Object Linking and 
Embedding) is supported among Windows applications.  Adobe Type Manager 
[See (5.5) Adobe Type Manager] and TrueType for Win-OS/2 comes with OS/2 
2.1.  Windows screen (for a full screen desktop) and printer device drivers 
will work under Win-OS/2 [See (2.2) SuperVGA Support].  Such notorious 
Windows applications as Word, Norton Desktop (save portions described 
above), Toolbook, and After Dark work fine under Win-OS/2.  Even 
applications which rely on the Windows Multimedia Extensions (supplied as 
part of Win-OS/2) operate without trouble.  [See (3.6) Multimedia for 
information on the OS/2 multimedia extensions, MMPM/2.] All the Windows 
applets (except those made redundant by OS/2's applets) are provided.  

Win-OS/2 departs from Microsoft Windows in that it allows more than one 
Windows desktop and can preemptively (rather than cooperatively) multitask 
Windows applications in separate, robust, protected sessions.  

Some Windows applications require custom settings in WIN.INI.  If such a 
Windows application has been installed under the DOS version of Windows, 
Win-OS/2 may not be able to find the appropriate files or configuration.  
Try reinstalling the Windows application under Win-OS/2.  (Note that 
several options are available for Win-OS/2 interaction with the Windows INI 
files.  For example, the Windows INI files may be migrated during 
installation.  Or both Win-OS/2 and Windows can share a single set of INI 

In short, OS/2 2.1 is generally regarded as the most DOS and Windows 
compatible among the new crop of 32-bit operating systems (NT included).  
It is also generally regarded as a better DOS multitasker than Desqview.  

  Related information: 
  (1.2)  Differences Between Versions 
  (2.2)  SuperVGA Support 
  (3.2)  Shareware and Freeware Sources 
  (3.4)  Disk Utilities 
  (3.6)  Multimedia
  (3.8)  Networking Products 
  (3.11) Backup Software 
  (4.3)  Hard Disk Partitioning 
  (4.4)  Starting OS/2 from Diskette 
  (5.5)  Adobe Type Manager 
  (5.6)  Performance Tuning 
  (5.9)  Specific DOS Sessions 

(1.4) Availability and Cost of OS/2

 Where can I buy OS/2, and how much does it cost? 

In the United States IBM OS/2 Version 2.1 is available directly from IBM.  
Until September 14, promotional pricing is in effect.  OS/2 2.1 can be 
ordered directly from IBM by calling 800-3-IBM-OS2.  The price is $119 for 
the diskette versions (5.25 or 3.5 inch media) and $99 for the CD-ROM 
version (with both 5.25 inch and 3.5 inch "bootstrap" diskettes).  These 
prices are for the Upgrade Edition (for customers who already have any 
version of DOS or OS/2).  Non-upgrade packages are priced higher.  Both 
prices include express shipping.  A rebate coupon is enclosed in each 
Upgrade Edition package; users of any version of OS/2 receive a $30 rebate.  

IBM part numbers are as follows:  61G0900 for 3.5 inch media, 61G0902 for 
3.5 inch media Upgrade Edition, 61G0901 for 5.25 inch media, 61G0903 for 
5.25 inch media Upgrade Edition, 61G0904 for compact disc, 71G1877 for 
compact disc Upgrade Edition.  An additional license certificate (no media 
or manuals) is 61G0910; an additional license Upgrade Edition certificate 
is 61G0911.  

However, OS/2 2.1 is now available from almost any software dealer 
(including Corporate Software, Egghead, Software Etc., and many others).  
Software dealer pricing is lower than that available directly from IBM -- 
often $10 or $20 lower.  With rebate, OS/2 2.1 is about $65 for the 
diskette version and about $50 for the CD-ROM version from most dealers.  
(The CD-ROM version is less expensive because it costs much less to 

Additional license certificates are available for second and subsequent 
copies (with a $10 rebate per Upgrade Edition certificate if upgrading from 
any version of OS/2).  However, with the promotional pricing now in effect 
it does not make economic sense to purchase license certificates when 
upgrading from OS/2.  Through most dealers the CD-ROM package costs the 
same as a license certificate, after rebate.  Each CD-ROM (or diskette) 
package includes a set of OS/2 manuals and 60 days (per package) of toll 
free technical support.  An additional license certificate does not come 
with either.  

These prices mean that OS/2 2.1 costs about the same as Microsoft Windows 
for DOS and roughly one fifth to one third as much as the base (not server) 
versions of Windows NT, NeXTStep, Solaris, and UnixWare (NT is not yet 

In Canada phone 800-465-1234 to order.  In the U.K.  phone the OS/2 User 
Group at 0285-655888 or IBM at 0800-181182.  In other countries, contact 
any IBM dealer or office.  Pricing varies from country to country.  

IBM OS/2 Version 1.3 is still available and may be ordered through many IBM 

IBM is trying to make OS/2 2.1 available everywhere DOS is purchased.  If 
your dealer does not stock OS/2 2.1, take your business elsewhere (and 
explain why).  IBM bundles OS/2 2.1 with some PS/1, most ValuePoint, and 
all 386SX (and above) PS/2 systems.  Several other vendors, including AST, 
Northgate, ALR, Unisys, Dell, Ariel Design, and Tangent, will preload OS/2 
2.1 on request.  

IBM offers two money back guarantees in the U.S.:  a 30-day, no questions 
asked, money back guarantee, and a 90-day compatibility guarantee [See 
(2.1) Hardware Requirements].  

 Related information: 
 (1.2) Differences Between Versions 
 (2.1) Hardware Requirements 
 (3.8) Networking Products 

(1.5) High Performance File System (HPFS)

 Why should I use HPFS?  What does it offer me?  Does it work with DOS? 

HPFS offers long file names (up to 254 characters including the path, 
greatly exceeding the "8 dot 3" limit in DOS's FAT file system), contiguous 
storage of extended attributes (without the EA DATA.  SF file used by FAT), 
resistance to file fragmentation, improved media error handling, smaller 
cluster size, support for larger file storage devices (up to 512 GB), and 
speedier disk operation, particularly on large hard disks, on systems with 
more than 6 MB of RAM.  HPFS is not case sensitive, although it does 
preserve case in file names.  

However, HPFS is not currently supported on removeable media, although some 
programs (e.g.  BACKUP) preserve long file names on such FAT disks.  Also, 
native mode DOS cannot access a HPFS partition.  However, DOS/Windows 
sessions running under OS/2 can use all files that conform to the "8 dot 3" 
naming conventions, even if they are stored on HPFS volumes.  

 Related information: 
 (3.4) Disk Utilities 
 (4.3) Hard Disk Partitioning 
 (4.4) Starting OS/2 from Diskette 

(2.1) Hardware Requirements

 What hardware do I need to run IBM OS/2 2.1?  Do I need a PS/2? 

You need any PC compatible with at least an 80386SX CPU, 4 MB (6 MB or more 
strongly recommended) of RAM, a 60 MB or larger hard disk (with 15-37 MB 
free, depending on which features you wish to install), a supported video 
adapter (CGA, EGA, VGA, many SuperVGA, 8514/A, XGA, or third party driver) 
with appropriate display, and a high density 3.5 or 5.25 inch floppy drive 
for installation.  A mouse or other pointing device is strongly 
recommended.  Allow extra RAM and hard disk space for OS/2-based networking 
[See (3.8) Networking Products], Extended Services [See (3.9) Extended 
Services], and/or extra system loads (i.e.  an extraordinary number of 
large applications running simultaneously).  When calculating hard disk 
space requirements, subtract space occupied by files already on the hard 
disk which are functionally included in OS/2 2.1 and may be deleted, e.g.  
DOS, a 386 memory manager, Windows 3.1, Adobe Type Manager [See (5.5) Adobe 
Type Manager] with base typefaces, etc.  

The Workplace Shell (WPS) will not operate with the Monochrome Display 
Adapter or the Hercules Monochrome Graphics Adapter.  Usually the WPS will 
fail to work with monochrome EGA.  However, some EGA adapters (e.g.  
Paradise Monochrome EGA Card, ATI EGA Wonder) will emulate all color EGA 
modes on TTL monochrome monitors and, thus, will work with the WPS.  Many 
dual monitor configurations are supported; consult IBM for advice.  

On (E)ISA bus machines, OS/2 specifically supports hard drive adapters 
which conform to the Western Digital chipset interface standard (nearly all 
MFM, RLL, IDE, and ESDI adapters) and Adaptec, Future Domain, DPT, and IBM 
SCSI adapters.  (True OS/2 2.1 drivers for most SCSI adapters, e.g.  
Trantor, Rancho, Procomp, Corel Systems, BusLogic, Seagate, Mylex, CE 
Infosys, Ciprico, MediaVision ProAudio Spectrum, and others are available 
directly from the adapter manufacturers or from (3.2) Shareware and 
Freeware Sources.  A driver for the Always IN-2000 adapter is available by 
phoning Columbia Data Products at 407-869-6700.  Columbia also provides the 
necessary EPROM and PROM upgrades.)  In addition, "generic" INT13 support 
is provided for all other hard disk adapters.  This "generic" support even 
embraces such devices as Iomega's Bernoulli and SyQuest's removeable media 
products (but for best results contact Iomega or SyQuest for an OS/2 2.1 

OS/2 driver support is available for the following CD-ROM drives:  

  o Hitachi 

     - CDR-1650S 
     - CDR-1750S 
     - CDR-3650 
     - CDR-3750 

  o IBM 

     - all models 

  o NEC 

     - CDR-25 
     - CDR-36 
     - CDR-37 
     - CDR-38 
     - CDR-72 
     - CDR-73 
     - CDR-74 
     - CDR-82 
     - CDR-83 
     - CDR-84 

  o Panasonic 

     - CR-501 
     - LK-MC501S 
     - MC501B 
     - MC521 

  o Pioneer 

     - DRM-600 
     - DRM-604X 

  o Sony 

     - CDU-541 
     - CDU-561 
     - CDU-6111 
     - CDU-6211 
     - CDU-7211 

  o Texel 

     - DM-3021 
     - DM-3024 
     - DM-5021 
     - DM-5024 

  o Toshiba 

     - XM-3201 
     - XM-3301 
     - XM-3401 
when attached to IBM, Future Domain, Adaptec, DPT, or other SCSI adapters 
with native OS/2 2.1 support.  The OS/2 CD-ROM support includes audio, ISO 
9660/High Sierra, CD-ROM/XA, and Kodak Photo CD compatibility for those 
drives which support these standards.  

Drivers for non-SCSI Sony CD-ROM drives (e.g.  CDU-535, CDU-31A, and 
related models) and Mitsumi CD-ROM drives (and compatibles, e.g.  Tandy 
CDR-1000 and DAK) are available from several sources [See (3.2) Shareware 
and Freeware Sources].  Storage Devices offers OS/2 drivers for its 
parallel port attached peripherals, including its CD-ROM drive.  Corel 
Systems offers a set of OS/2 drivers (in its "Corel SCSI" package) for many 
more CD-ROM drives, magneto-optical drives, and other SCSI devices when 
attached to any of a number of SCSI adapters.  DOS device drivers, when 
installed using a specific DOS session [See (5.9) Specific DOS Sessions], 
will still provide CD-ROM services to DOS/Windows programs for the 

See (2.3) Printer Support for information on OS/2 printer and plotter 

Version 2.1 is explicitly supported on non-IBM PC compatibles.  IBM is 
offering a money back compatibility guarantee in the U.S.  Should OS/2 2.1 
fail to work on your compatible within the first 90 days of use, and should 
IBM be unable to fix the problem, your purchase price will be refunded.  To 
date over 750 non-IBM models have been tested in IBM's own labs.  

  Related information: 
  (3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources 
  (3.8) Networking Products 
  (3.9) Extended Services 
  (5.5) Adobe Type Manager 
  (5.9) Specific DOS Sessions 

(2.2) SuperVGA Support

 Will OS/2 2.1 work with my SuperVGA adapter? 

Consult the OS/2 2.1 Installation Guide and Using the Operating System 
manuals for complete information on SuperVGA support.  

OS/2 2.1 contains built-in 256 color drivers for most SuperVGA adapters 
based on the following chipsets:  
 ATI 28800 
 Cirrus Logic CL-GD5422 and CL-GD5424
 Headland Technologies HT209 
 Trident Microsystems TVGA8900B and TVGA8900C 
 Tseng Labs ET4000 
 Western Digital/Paradise WD90C11, WD90C30, and WD90C31 (in WD90C30 mode)
Some SuperVGA adapters (notably ATI's Vantage and Ultra lines) are 8514/A 
hardware compatible and will function in 1024x768 256 color mode with 
OS/2's built-in 8514/A driver.  

Drivers for other SuperVGA adapters (along with installation instructions), 
and modified versions of the built-in drivers (such as 16 color versions or 
small icon versions) should be available from the adapter vendors directly 
or through (3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources.  In addition, IBM will be 
releasing a set of drivers for SuperVGA adapters based on S3 chipsets to 
these public sources.  (However, certain S3-based adapters will require 
custom drivers from vendors.)  

Regular Windows 3.1 display drivers may be used for the full screen 
Win-OS/2 desktop.  To install a Windows 3.1 display driver under Win-OS/2, 
simply replace the \OS2\MDOS\WINOS2\SYSTEM\VGA.DRV file with the Windows 
..DRV file supplied by the vendor.  (Be sure to make a copy of the original 
OS/2-supplied driver file first.)  Note that you may have to use the EXPAND 
program supplied with Win-OS/2 to decompress the vendor's .DRV file.  

OS/2 2.1 has now routinized the procedure for setting customized refresh 
rates using DOS-based utilities.  You will be prompted during installation 
of a SuperVGA driver, and you can specify the DOS utility you wish to 
execute along with its parameters (if any).  The utility will then be run 
whenever you start OS/2 (to reset the SuperVGA adapter as required).  

 Related information: 
 (2.5) Specific Hardware Recommendations 
 (3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources 
 (5.8) Displaying Background Bitmaps 

(2.3) Printer Support

 Will OS/2 2.1 work with my printer? 

OS/2 2.1 includes support for Hewlett-Packard LaserJets (including the 
LaserJet 4 series), DeskJets (including the new 1200C and 510 models), and 
PaintJets; IBM/Lexmark ExecJets, InkJets, Proprinters, Quickwriters, 
Quietwriters, Pageprinters, and Laserprinters; Epson dot matrix, ink jet, 
and laser printers; Postscript devices; and other printers (e.g.  
Panasonic, Okidata) compatible with these families.  A variety of IBM and 
HP plotters (including HPGL/2 plotters) is also supported.  Drivers for NEC 
dot matrix printers and Canon laser and BubbleJet printers are now 
available for download [See (3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources or contact 
the Canon Support BBS at 714-438-3325].  

DOS/Windows printer drivers continue to work for DOS/Windows applications.  
OS/2 2.1 includes a large assortment of Windows printer drivers for 
Win-OS/2.  If necessary install Windows printer drivers using the Win-OS/2 
Control Panel.  OS/2 2.1 and OS/2 1.3 printer drivers are interchangeable 
in many cases.  

If your printer is not compatible with one of the drivers supplied with 
OS/2, check with the printer manufacturer first then with (3.2) Shareware 
and Freeware Sources.  If you own an IBM printer, check with the Lexmark 
BBS (modem 606-232-5653).  

If you are using a Postscript printer, and you are having difficulty 
printing under Win-OS/2 3.1, particularly over a network, try adding the 
following line to the Postscript section of your WIN.INI file:  


If you are having trouble printing generally, see the configuration advice 
in (4.1) Installation for assistance.  

 Related information: 
 (3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources 
 (4.1) Installation 

(2.4) COM3 and COM4 Support

 Can I use COM3 and COM4 in OS/2? 

COM3 and COM4 are supported on most PS/2s without any additional effort.  
On (E)ISA machines, some additions are required to CONFIG.SYS.  Using a 
text editor, include "(port number, base address, interrupt number)" 
parameters next to the COM.SYS and VCOM.SYS filenames.  One example:  
 DEVICE=C:\OS2\COM.SYS (3,3E8,5) (4,2E8,10)
 DEVICE=C:\OS2\MDOS\VCOM.SYS (3,3E8,5) (4,2E8,10)
Parameters for COM1 and COM2 need not be included (unless they are somehow 
nonstandard).  OS/2 must end up with sequentially numbered logical COM 
ports, if possible.  For example, if (physical) port two is not installed 
but port three or port four is installed, start numbering using (2,...)  in 
the DEVICE lines.  See the OS/2 2.1 Using the Operating System manual, 
starting on Page 374, for more information on COM ports under OS/2.  If 
these efforts fail, try the SIO drivers [available from (3.2) Shareware and 
Freeware Sources].  Note that IRQ 2 is actually redirected to IRQ 9 on the 
AT bus, so use (...,...,9) in the above COM.SYS and VCOM.SYS settings if 
your serial port is set to use IRQ 2. 

Note that AT bus COM ports cannot be used at the same time if they share 
interrupts because of bus design limitations (cf.  "Under the Hood:  How 
Interrupts Work," Byte, February, 1992).  An adapter which provides more 
flexibility in interrupt selection [e.g.  the 16-bit model from STB; See 
(2.5) Specific Hardware Recommendations] may prove helpful.  Also, PolyCom, 
a replacement driver available from (3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources, 
supports up to eight ports with the right hardware.  

"Smart" (coprocessor controlled) multiport communication adapters should be 
used when installing more than four ports.  Such an adapter will work with 
OS/2 if the manufacturer has written an appropriate driver.  Examples 

  Company           Telephone Number 
  IBM (ARTIC)       (800) PS2-2227 
  Digiboard         (612) 943-9020 
  Stargate          (216) 349-1860 
  Arnet             (615) 834-8000 
  Computone         (404) 475-2725 
  Comtrol           (612) 631-7654 
  CTC Systems       (415) 966-1688 
  Equinox           (305) 255-3500 
  I-Concepts        (214) 956-7770 
  Specialix         (408) 378-7919 
  Stallion          (408) 395-5775 
  Related information: 
  (2.5) Specific Hardware Recommendations 
  (3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources 

(2.5) Specific Hardware Recommendations

 Are there any specific hardware recommendations? 

Here are some of the peripherals and adapters that are particularly well 
suited to OS/2.  Some true bargains are included.  Prices do not include 
shipping and handling.  

o CatsEye/X XGA-2 Adapter.  An AT bus display adapter with the latest IBM 
P2 XGA-2 chipset, providing superior performance and the best driver 
support under OS/2.  Price:  $249 from FutureComm (phone 203-937-7725 or 
FAX 203-932-3154; ask for John Jaser).  A Microchannel version is available 
from IBM for a comparable price.  

o ATI 8514/A Compatible Display Adapters.  Harmony Computers (phone 
800-441-1144 or 718-692-2828) is advertising two of ATI's 8514/A hardware 
compatible Mach8 display adapters.  Both operate in 1024x768 256 color mode 
at up to 72 Hz noninterlaced using the OS/2 8514/A driver.  (Confirm, 
though, that these adapters have the full megabyte of video memory for the 
Mach8 processor, required for OS/2 operation.)  The ATI 8514/Ultra ($179) 
is designed to work in both Microchannel and AT bus machines and, while it 
uses fast VRAM video memory, it does not contain onboard VGA circuitry.  A 
separate VGA or SuperVGA display adapter, with passthrough connector, is 
required.  The ATI Graphics Ultra ($199) also uses VRAM, has onboard 
SuperVGA circuitry, and works with AT bus computers.  Computer Discount 
Warehouse (tel.  800-795-4239, FAX 708-291-1737) offers the 2 MB DRAM 
version of the ATI Graphics Ultra Plus for just $239.55.  The ATI GUP 
includes the more recent (and faster) Mach32 coprocessor, yet it is still 
8514/A hardware compatible.  CDW also sells the ATI Graphics Vantage (a 
DRAM version of the original Graphics Ultra) for only $158.41.  Both the 
Vantage and GUP are AT bus adapters.  

o Western Digital EtherCard Plus.  An 8-bit ethernet adapter (meaning 
you'll need a free, lower interrupt).  IBM LAN software (like TCP/IP) 
includes an EtherCard Plus driver -- no need to go searching.  Price:  $49 
from Hi-Tech (phone 805-966-5454).  Not the fastest, but probably among the 
least expensive and best supported.  

o NEC CDR-25 CD-ROM Drive with SCSI Interface.  An external, portable 
CD-ROM drive (with optional battery back available).  Compatible with ISO 
9660/High Sierra, audio, CD-ROM/XA, and single session Kodak Photo CD.  
Speed:  650 ms average access time, 150K/second sustained data transfer 
rate.  Does not use CD-ROM caddies.  Price:  $219 from ICP Corp.  (phone 
908-613-4444).  An 8-bit Trantor SCSI adapter and cable is $39 extra.  
(CompUSA is reportedly selling the CDR-25 for $179, excluding adapter.)  A 
slightly faster (450 ms) drive, the NEC CDR-36, is available with cable and 
Trantor SCSI adapter for $288 from ERM Liquidators (phone 800-776-5865).  
This model does not support Kodak Photo CD, however.  

o Toshiba CD-ROM Drive.  The latest, super fast (200 ms average access 
time; 300K+/second sustained data transfer rate) Toshiba CD-ROM drive, 
Model XM-3401, is available from many dealers for about $400 (internal 
model; external model is priced higher).  The Toshiba is the best choice 
when performance is critical.  

o SCSI Adapters Two good values are the Adaptec 1522 (available for about 
$95 from many dealers, including MegaHaus, phone 800-426-0560) and the 
Future Domain 1680 (only $129 from Computability, phone 800-554-9948 or FAX 
414-357-7814).  Both are 16-bit AT bus SCSI-2 adapters with on board 
diskette controllers, and both are supported by drivers that ship with OS/2 
2.1.  Neither use DMA [see (2.6) More Than 16 MB RAM].  

o Wangtek Tape Drives.  Super Technologies (phone 909-393-4648) offers a 
seven month warranty on several Wangtek SCSI tape drives.  The Wangtek 
5150ES (250 MB) is $295, the 5525ES (525 MB) is $495, and the 6200HS (2 GB
DAT) model is $650.  All will work with GTAK tape backup software [See 
(3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources] when attached to an OS/2 supported 
SCSI adapter.  

o Irwin Accutrack Tape Drive with EZTape/PM.  Several dealers offer the 
Irwin Accutrack series of tape drives bundled with EZTape for DOS, Windows, 
and OS/2.  Prices start at about $200.  

o 16550AFN Buffered UART Serial Port Adapters.  Improves high speed serial 
communications performance.  Price:  $35 for a two port adapter from 
Zero-One Networking (phone 714-693-0808).  Ask about adapters with parallel 

o Four Port 16550AFN Buffered UART Serial Adapter.  The STB 4-COM adapter 
is available for $119 delivered by calling 800-735-5266 Ext.  64.  The 
16-bit STB adapter provides four buffered serial ports, each with an 
independently selectable interrupt and address.  IRQs above 7 are supported 
for each port.  Up to two of these adapters may be installed in the same 
system (for up to eight buffered serial ports).  Four six inch 8-pin DIN to 
DB9 male converter cables are supplied.  Fifteen month manufacturer's 
warranty and free technical support from STB.  

o Creative Labs SoundBlaster.  Original (Revision 2.0), Pro, and 16ASP 
models are available from many suppliers and provide audio output for OS/2 
multimedia applications.  Prices range from about $90 to $250.  

o IBM M-Audio Adapter.  Available in either AT bus or Microchannel models 
for the same price.  Provides compact disc quality audio reproduction and 
recording capabilities under OS/2.  Price:  $235 from IBM Direct (phone 
800-IBM-2YOU) or $222 from IBM Educational Sales (phone 800-222-7254).  

o MediaVision ProAudio Spectrum 16.  The PAS 16, as it is known, offers 
compact disc quality audio reproduction and recording capabilities and an 
on board SCSI port (for CD-ROM drives and other peripherals).  Available 
from several dealers for about $150.  The Logitech SoundMan 16 is identical 
to the PAS 16 (and sometimes less expensive), although it does not include 
a SCSI port.  MediaVision's new ProAudio Studio, a more expensive adapter, 
is also supported under OS/2 2.1.  All three are AT bus adapters.  
  Related information: 
  (2.1) Hardware Requirements 
  (2.2) SuperVGA Support 
  (2.4) COM3 and COM4 Support 
  (2.6) More Than 16 MB RAM 
  (3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources 

(2.6) More Than 16 MB RAM

 Can I use more than 16 MB of RAM? 

OS/2 2.1 will address all the RAM in your system.  If the BIOS recognizes 
the memory, OS/2 will find it and use it.  

However, on certain systems the RAM beyond the 16 MB boundary may be used 
as a fast swap area.  OS/2 relies on its swap file, SWAPPER.DAT, to hold 
code and data which cannot fit into real memory (i.e.  to provide virtual 
memory).  If the swap file can only be accessed via a hard disk adapter 
which uses 24-bit DMA for disk access (e.g.  the Adaptec 154x series), then 
the system must move code and data below the 16 MB boundary before it can 
write it to disk.  This "double move" is costly (in terms of performance), 
and often OS/2 will merely use all the RAM above the 16 MB boundary as a 
fast swap area (before writing to disk) to avoid the problem.  It is up to 
the hard disk adapter driver, however, to decide how to handle this 

Only AT bus adapters are limited to 24-bit DMA.  Microchannel, EISA, and 
other 32-bit adapters are not so limited.  Moreover, only a select few AT 
bus hard disk adapters utilize DMA.  Nearly all MFM, RLL, and IDE adapters, 
and many SCSI adapters, do not use DMA for disk access.  

Suffice it to say that, regardless of your present hardware, OS/2 will take 
advantage of it as best it can.  However, if you are planning new hardware 
purchases, you may wish to take this particular hardware design limitation 
into account.  Specifically, if you plan to install more than 16 MB of RAM 
in your system, either choose a 32-bit hard disk adapter (Microchannel or 
EISA, for example) or choose an AT bus adapter which does not utilize DMA 
for disk access (a standard IDE adapter, an Adaptec 152x series SCSI 
adapter, or a Future Domain SCSI adapter, for example).  

 Related information: 
 (2.5) Specific Hardware Recommendations 

(2.7) Device Driver List

 What device drivers are available that aren't included with OS/2? 

(This section will be completed in a future release of the OS/2 Frequently 
Asked Questions List.)  

 Related information: 
 (3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources 

(3.1) Applications

 What applications are available for OS/2? 

In addition to the thousands of applications available for DOS and Windows, 
there are a couple thousand OS/2-specific applications representing almost 
every category imaginable.  

The DOS/Windows applications with 16-bit OS/2-specific counterparts 

  o Aldus 

     - Pagemaker 

  o AutoDesk 

     - AutoCAD 

  o Borland 

     - Sidekick 
     - Paradox 
     - Brief 

  o Corel Systems 

     - CorelDraw 

  o DeScribe 

     - Word Publisher 

  o FutureSoft 

     - DynaComm 

  o Hilgraeve 

     - HyperAccess/5 

  o IBM 

     - DisplayWrite 
     - DisplayWrite Composer 

  o Informix 

     - Wingz 

  o JP Software 

     - 4OS2 (4DOS for OS/2) 

  o Lotus Development 

     - 1-2-3 
     - Freelance Graphics 
     - Notes 
     - cc:Mail 

  o Micrographx 

     - Designer 

  o Microrim 

     - R:Base 

  o Microsoft 

     - Word 
     - Excel 
     - Multiplan 
     - Mail 

  o New England Software 

     - Graph-in-the-Box 

  o Omen 

     - Pro-YAM 

  o Oracle 

     - Database 

  o SAS Institute 

     - SAS 

  o SemWare 

     - QEdit 

  o SPSS Inc. 

     - SPSS 

  o Ventura 

     - Publisher 

  o WordPerfect Corp. 

     - WordPerfect 
and many others.  In some cases DOS and OS/2 versions ship together (e.g.  
Microsoft Word 5.5, Lotus 1-2-3 3.0, Wingz).  

OS/2 2.1 provides an attractive, 32-bit, Workplace Shell environment for 
new applications; many do not have DOS/Windows predecessors.  This new 
class of 32-bit applications will (or does) include:  

  o Borland 

     - ObjectVision 
     - C++ 

  o Computer Associates 

     - ACCPAC Simply Accounting 
     - Compete! 
     - Consensus 
     - dBFast 
     - Realizer 
     - SuperProject 
     - Telon/PWS 
     - Textor 
     - Unicenter 

  o Corel Systems 

     - CorelDraw 

  o DeScribe 

     - Word Publisher 

  o Hilgraeve 

     - HyperAccess/PM 

  o Lotus Development 

     - 1-2-3 
     - Freelance Graphics 
     - Notes 
     - cc:Mail 
     - Ami Pro 

  o Microformatic 

     - Fax/PM 

  o Micrographx 

     - Draw 
     - Designer 
     - (All others) 

  o Microrim 

     - R:Base 

  o Proportional Software 

     - DCF/2 (disk compression) 

  o SofNet 

     - Faxworks 

  o Spinnaker 

     - PFS:Works 

  o Stac Electronics 

     - Stacker 

  o Symantec 

     - Norton Commander 
     - Zortech C++ 

  o Vienna Software Publishing 

     - N/Joy: The World of Objects 

  o WordPerfect Corp. 

     - WordPerfect 
     - Office 
     - Presentations 

  o ZSoft (WordStar) 

     - Publisher's Paintbrush 
and many more.  Over 1200 new 32-bit OS/2 2.1 applications have been 
released to date.  

OS/2-specific versions of popular utilities include ZIP/UNZIP, ARC, LHA, 
Zoo 2.1, many GNU tools, tens of different file finders, desktop clocks, 
calculators, and many more.  Programming languages include Assembler, C++, 
COBOL, Pascal, C, Fortran, BASIC, REXX (included with every copy of OS/2 
2.1), Icon, Smalltalk, Modula-2, LISP, Ada, Prolog, Forth, and still more, 
from vendors such as Borland, Clarion, Watcom, Symantec (through its 
Zortech subsidiary), IBM, Microway, and many more.  Two free ports of the 
32-bit GNU C/C++ compiler, GCC/2 and EMX/GCC, are available [See (3.2) 
Shareware and Freeware Sources].  Fortran to C (f2c) and Pascal to C (p2c) 
translators are also available.  (See the Programmer's Edition of this List 
for more information.)  

The IBM PC Company BBS (404-835-6600) provides an online product database 
of OS/2-specific software.  A directory of OS/2 applications, IBM document 
number G362-0029, is published by Graphics Plus (phone 800-READ-OS2).  The 
OS/2 Development Tools Guide is available free of charge by calling the IBM 
Developer Assistance Program at (407) 982-6408.  TINF [See (3.2) Shareware 
and Freeware Sources] is an applications directory (for use with the OS/2 
VIEW facility).  

  Related information: 
  (1.3) DOS and Windows Compatibility 
  (3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources 

(3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources

 Where can I obtain OS/2 shareware and freeware? 

See (4.11) OS/2 BBSes for information on bulletin board systems that 
support OS/2.  

On the Internet, the Usenet conference comp.binaries.os2 carries OS/2 
software.  And several sites are available via anonymous ftp.  (No ftp?  
Send a single line message with the word HELP to bitftp@pucc.bitnet or 
ftpmail@decwrl.dec.com to learn about ftp mail servers.)  Some are (with 
Internet node numbers and subdirectories):  

  ftp-os2.cdrom.com       /os2
  ftp-os2.nmsu.edu        pub/os2
  software.watson.ibm.com     pub/os2
  mtsg.ubc.ca                os2:
  access.usask.ca            pub/archives/os2
  luga.latrobe.edu.au        pub/os2
  funic.funet.fi           pub/os2
  pdsoft.lancs.ac.uk         micros/ibmpc/os2
  ftp.uni-stuttgart.de       soft/os2
  src.doc.ic.ac.uk           computing/systems/os2
  zaphod.cs.uwindsor.ca    pub/local/os2
  ftp.luth.se               pub/pc/os2
  ftp.informatik.tu-muenchen.de    /pub/comp/os/os2
The ftp-os2.nmsu.edu library is available on CD-ROM from Walnut Creek 
(phone 510-947-5996).  EMS (phone 301-924-3594) offers an OS/2 
shareware/freeware library on diskette.  

Other sources include CompuServe (FIND OS/2) and archive servers (send a 
single line message with the word HELP to listserv@cc1.kuleuven.ac.be or 
mail-server@rus.uni-stuttgart.de for more information, or use ftp).  
TRICKLE servers are also available outside the United States.  For more 
information on TRICKLE services, including automatic file subscription 
procedures, send a single line message with the word HELP to any one of the 
following sites nearest you:  

  Country       Address 
  Austria       TRICKLE@AWIWUW11.BITNET 
  Belgium       TRICKLE@BANUFS11.BITNET 
  France        TRICKLE@FRMOP11.BITNET 
IBM has been releasing freely distributable employee written software (e.g.  
Visual REXX) and OS/2 patches to these sites.  

  Related information: 
  (3.3)  "Must Have" Shareware and Freeware 
  (3.5)  Running a BBS Under OS/2
  (3.7)  Viruses
  (4.6)  Corrective Service Diskettes 
  (4.11) OS/2 BBSes 

(3.3) "Must Have" Shareware and Freeware

 What are the "must have" shareware and freeware titles? 

Here are some of the shareware and freeware selections that have proven 
popular among OS/2 users.  Where available, an approximate filename is 
provided.  However, since version numbers are changing frequently, please 
bear in mind that some of this information may be dated.  Also, please 
register any shareware you use -- your support will ensure a continuing 
supply of capable OS/2 shareware.  

o OS2Exec (OS2EXEC.ZIP):  Start any OS/2 program from any OS/2 DOS session.  

o Worldwide OS/2 BBS List (OS2WORLD.ZIP):  List of BBSes around the world 
where OS/2 is the predominant area of discussion and where large OS/2 
software archives are held.  

o 4OS2 Version 1.1 (4OS232.ZIP):  A replacement command interpreter from JP 
Software.  A must for command line users.  

o StartD (STARTD.ZIP):  Provides the capability to start DOS sessions with 
specific, custom DOS Settings from the OS/2 command line.  

o Icon Extractor (ICON_160.ZIP):  Converts Windows icons to OS/2 format.  
Icons can be extracted from Windows executables.  Assigns icons via drag 
and drop.  Deletes undeleteable objects.  

o Mr.  File/PM (MRFILEPM.ZIP):  File manager and program launcher.  

o Workplace Shell Backup (WPSBK7.ZIP):  Backup the OS/2 desktop.  

o Extended Attributes Backup (EABK202.ZIP):  Saves extended attributes so 
that non-EA aware backup software preserves all necessary OS/2 data.  

o Visual REXX (VREXX2.ZIP):  Provides the ability to write REXX programs 
which use Presentation Manager windows, scroll bars, menus, and other 

o Icon Programming Language (ICON88.ZIP):  A simple yet powerful 
programming language for many platforms, including OS/2.  Supports 
graphical applications.  

o EMX/GCC (various):  Powerful C/C++ compiler with programming aids and 
enhanced libraries.  

o Enhanced Editor Toolkit and Accessories (various):  Add-ons to the 
Enhanced Editor (EPM) which provide editor macro capabilities, 
documentation, and various accessories.  

o INI Maintenance (INIMNT1E.ZIP):  Edit and maintain your vital OS/2 INI 

o Info-Zip's UnZip 5.0 (UNZ50X32.EXE):  Extract files from ZIP archives.  
PKZip 2.x compatible.  Supports extended attributes.  Companion utility, 
Zip 1.9, also available.  

o GTAK GNU tar (GTAK212.ZIP):  Tape archive (backup and restore) utility.  
Supports SCSI tape drives.  

o MR/2 ( MR2_139.ZIP):  Reader for BBS QWK mail packets.  

o TE/2 (TE2_123.ZIP):  A full featured terminal emulation and modem 
communications program.  

o PMComm (PMCOM110.ZIP):  As full featured as TE/2, but with a Presentation 
Manager interface.  

o C-Kermit 5A(188) (CK5A188.ZIP):  A terminal emulation and modem 
communications program featuring the Kermit file transfer protocol.  

o SIO COM Drivers (SIO100.ZIP):  Replacement serial port drivers which 
offer enhanced performance.  

o McAfee's Virus Scan (OSCN102.ZIP):  Detects viruses.  Companion Virus 
Clean and Net Scan utilities also available.  

o Minesweeper (DMINE110.ZIP):  A game which requires you to avoid the mines 
in a minefield.  Several other versions are available.  

o Galleria (GALLERIA.ZIP):  Graphics manipulation and screen capture 

o FracInt 17.2 (PMFRA2.ZIP):  Render fractal images.  Also converts among 
several image formats.  

o IBM Configurator and Pricer (ICPAUSA.ZIP):  Prices IBM personal computer 
systems and accessories.  

o PS/2 Assistant (PS2AST72.ZIP):  Provides information on most of the IBM 
personal computer product line, including OS/2.  

o Install B (INSTB.ZIP):  Allows installation of OS/2 from 3.5 inch media 
when Drive A is a 5.25 inch high density floppy drive and Drive B is a 3.5 
inch high density floppy drive.  

o emTeX (various):  Provides professional typesetting and document 

o BlackHole (BLAKHOL3.ZIP):  A Workplace Shell object that destroys 
anything dragged to it.  

o CONFIG.SYS Editor (CFGED1B.ZIP):  A Presentation Manager utility which 
eases CONFIG.SYS editing.  

o BootOS2 (BOOT2X.ZIP):  Creates an OS/2 bootable diskette.  

o psPM (PSPM2.ZIP):  Displays a graphical representation of the processes 
running on an OS/2 system and allows termination of any or all.  

o Workplace Shell Tools (WPTOOL02.ZIP):  Creates or deletes standard 
Workplace Shell objects.  

o GhostScript PM (GS252PM.ZIP):  Postscript interpreter and viewer.  

o OS2You (OS2YOU27.ZIP):  OS/2 remote control over a modem or LAN 
connection.  Companion program PM2You, for control of graphical 
applications, including DOS and Windows, is also available.  

o UUPC/Extended (various):  Provides uucp connection for mail, news, and 
other services.  

o TedP (TEDP090.ZIP):  Text editor, under 10K in size -- perfect for an 
emergency boot diskette.  

o BookShelf (BOOKSHLF.ZIP):  Utility which presents a coherent menu of all 
available INF files on your system.  

o VSwitch (VSWITCH.ZIP):  A task list for full screen sessions.  
  Related information: 
  (3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources 

(3.4) Disk Utilities

 Is there a Norton Utilities for OS/2? 

Not yet, although Norton Desktop, Norton Utilities, and Norton Commander 
all work under OS/2 2.1's DOS/Windows sessions [with limitations; See (1.3) 
DOS and Windows Compatibility].  Also, Norton Commander is now available 
for OS/2 2.1.  

However, the GammaTech Utilities should fill the role.  Contact their 
publisher at 405-359-1219.  Note that OS/2 2.1 has a built-in UnDelete 
utility (see the online Command Reference), and HPFS is resistant to 
fragmentation [See (1.5) High Performance File System].  

 Related information: 
 (1.3) DOS and Windows Compatibility 
 (1.5) High Performance File System 

(3.5) Running a BBS Under OS/2

 I would like to set up an OS/2 BBS.  What is available? 

OS/2 is an excellent environment for BBS operation (even using DOS/Windows 
software), including large multiline facilities.  Related software will 
enable FidoNet capabilities, gateways to Usenet/UUCP, nodelist processing, 
additional file transfer protocols, and more.  

Five popular OS/2-specific BBSes are Maximus and Simplex [available from 
(3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources), Omega Point/2 (BBS 404-564-1961), 
Magnum (phone 818-706-9800, BBS 818-706-9805), and Multi-Net (phone 
503-883-8099, BBS 503-883-8197).  

For more information on operating a BBS under OS/2 (with conferences 
devoted to the subject) log on to one of the OS/2 BBSes listed in (4.11) 
OS/2 BBSes.  

 Related information: 
 (2.4)  COM3 and COM4 Support 
 (4.11) OS/2 BBSes 

(3.6) Multimedia (MMPM/2)

 What do I need for OS/2 multimedia applications? 

OS/2 2.1 includes both the Win-OS/2 multimedia extensions and MMPM/2, the 
OS/2 multimedia extensions, at no extra charge.  OS/2 2.1's MMPM/2 includes 
software motion video support for both IBM Ultimotion and Intel Indeo 
files.  Software motion video provides playback of video clips in a window 
under OS/2.  (Video for Windows will operate correctly under Win-OS/2, but 
Ultimotion is far more capable than Video for Windows.  Ultimotion supports 
higher frame rates, larger image sizes, better synchronization of video and 
audio, and, often, simultaneous playback of two or more video clips, even 
with background tasks running.)  An accelerated display adapter and a fast 
processor can help improve the quality of software motion video.  

Drivers for the Creative Labs SoundBlaster series, MediaVision ProAudio 
series, and IBM M-Audio Capture and Playback Adapter are provided with 
MMPM/2.  Other drivers should be available from (3.2) Shareware and 
Freeware Sources, or contact your adapter vendor for information on OS/2 
driver support.  (MediaVision will be releasing a patch which allows the 
Creative Labs Soundblaster driver to operate with SoundBlaster clones, like 
their own ThunderBoard.  The original SoundBlaster and certain ATI 
SoundBlaster clones may require a low cost upgrade from the manufacturer to 
work with MMPM/2.)  A driver for the PC speaker will be released by IBM in 
June, 1993, but this driver demands a huge amount of processor attention 
and does not provide the fidelity that audio adapters do.  

Note that the MediaVision ProAudio Spectrum Plus operates correctly when 
using the built-in MMPM/2 ProAudio Spectrum 16 driver.  However, to obtain 
full functionality you must change the PARAMSTRING line in the 
[ibmwavepas1601] section of the file \MMOS2\MMPM2.INI after installation of 
MMPM/2.  Using a text editor (like the OS/2 System Editor), change the line 
so that BPS=8 instead of BPS=16.  This change causes MMPM/2 to default to 
8-bit audio (since the ProAudio Spectrum Plus does not support 16-bit 

MMPM/2 drivers should also be available for Digitan and Omni sound 
adapters, directly from their manufacturers.  VideoLogic's (phone 
617-494-0530) DVA-4000 supports video capture and video display in OS/2 
windows as does New Media Graphics's (phone 508-663-0666) Super 
VideoWindows.  Tecmar (phone 800-624-8560 or 216-349-1009, or FAX 
216-349-0851) offers various OS/2 multimedia products, including the 
ProSound audio adapter.  

REXX programs [see (5.11) REXX] can be used to play, record, and manipulate 
MMPM/2 audio and video files.  For more information on REXX and MMPM/2, 
consult the online Multimedia with REXX document (located in the Multimedia 

More information on IBM's OS/2 multimedia extensions (MMPM/2) and tools, 
Ultimotion, multimedia hardware, and IBM multimedia titles (e.g.  
Illuminated Manuscript) is available through IBM's Multimedia Office (phone 
800-426-9402 ext.  150).  

 Related information: 
 (1.3)  DOS and Windows Compatibility 
 (2.5)  Specific Hardware Recommendations 
 (3.2)  Shareware and Freeware Sources 
 (4.5)  Technical Support 
 (5.11) REXX 

(3.7) Viruses

 Should I worry about viruses when running OS/2 2.1? 

At present there are no OS/2-specific viruses.  However, DOS/Windows 
viruses can conceivably infect an OS/2 2.1 system.  DOS/Windows antivirus 
tools are just as useful in preventing such infection.  Also, IBM has an 
antivirus package (AntiVirus/2) which runs under OS/2 directly (without 
DOS/Windows emulation).  McAfee's OS/2 SCAN and CLEAN have been released, 
as has Dr.  Solomon's Antivirus Toolkit for OS/2 from Ontrack Systems.  
Others (Dr.  Cohen, for example) are in development.  

But OS/2 2.1 is likely to be much more resistant to viruses because of its 
design.  Viruses running in one virtual DOS/Windows session are likely to 
be confined to that session.  Low level disk access is curtailed under OS/2 
2.1, thus preventing most virus infection at that level.  And when a 
DOS/Windows virus does trigger, it is far less likely to disrupt the entire 
system.  In fact, OS/2 is most vulnerable when it isn't in charge (i.e.  
when native DOS is being used).  A DOS virus then has free reign to write 
to the hard disk and possibly disable OS/2.  The greater risk comes from 
leaving OS/2.  

OS/2 2.1 is by no means virus proof -- no system is.  But it should prove 
more resistant to virus infection.  

 Related information: 
 (1.3) DOS and Windows Compatibility 

(3.8) Networking Products

 What networking products are available for OS/2 2.1? 

In addition to DOS/Windows products, OS/2-specific TCP/IP support is 
available from IBM (phone 800-IBM-CALL), Essex Systems (phone 
508-532-5511), FTP Software (send mail to info@ftp.com), and others.  (A 
freeware SLIP implementation, PMNOS, is available; see (3.2) Shareware and 
Freeware Sources.)  The NetWare Workstation Kit 2.01 for OS/2 is available 
from Novell (phone 800-873-2831) and IBM for a small charge; it is also 
available free of charge from (3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources.  Note 
that NetWare 4.0 Server (including all the NLMs) can run alongside OS/2 2.1 
at the same time, making OS/2 2.1 the only operating system providing 
nondedicated NetWare 4.0 server and client capability (a boon for 
administration and dual LAN Server/NetWare servers, for example).  IBM 
offers both NetWare and LAN Server 3.0 (Basic and Advanced) with LAN 
requesters.  Microsoft sells LAN Manager (which comes bundled with OS/2 
1.3).  An OS/2 2.1 LAN Manager Requester, part no.  96F8359, is available 
from IBM; Microsoft offers a similar requester with LAN Manager 2.1a (or 
later).  DEC sells Pathworks (Version 2.0b) for OS/2.  Banyan Vines 5.5 (or 
later) includes an OS/2 2.x requester.  

OS/2 NDIS MAC drivers for most network adapters are available from (3.2) 
Shareware and Freeware Sources, as well as vax.ftp.com via Internet 
anonymous ftp.  Drivers for 3Com adapters are available via anonymous ftp 
from ftp.3com.com, from the 3Com Support BBS, or from CompuServe (GO 
THREECOM).  Drivers for Cabletron adapters are available via anonymous ftp 
from ftp.ctron.com.  

Peer-to-peer networking under OS/2 2.1 is best accomplished (at the moment) 
with either a TCP/IP or APPN product, like IBM's TCP/IP or Communications 
Manager/2, respectively.  TCP/IP (with NFS) is available for nearly all 
platforms, so it is a particularly good choice in a mixed environment.  
Artisoft is reportedly working on an OS/2 version of LANtastic; contact the 
company for details.  Note that LANtastic 5.0 can run in an OS/2 2.1 DOS 
session, providing either client or server capability (including access to 
HPFS long filenames for DOS clients).  IBM may have its own offering in the 
near future (a repackaging and upgrade of the peer-to-peer support already 
provided in LAN Server 3.0).  This support can interoperate with Microsoft 
Windows for Workgroups.  

Infoworld recently called OS/2 the best PC operating system for networking 
in a mixed environment (i.e.  with multiple network protocols and/or 
platforms).  With IBM's Network Transport Services/2 at the base (i.e.  by 
working through a single NDIS interface, using "shims" if necessary), 
multiple network protocols can share the same network adapter under OS/2, 
avoiding contention.  OS/2 is equally adept as network client, server, 
and/or peer.  It is flexible enough to meet the needs of almost any network 

 Related information: 
 (1.3)  DOS and Windows Compatibility 
 (3.2)  Shareware and Freeware Sources 
 (3.9)  Extended Services 
 (3.12) Multiuser Extensions and Security 
 (5.9)  Specific DOS Sessions 

(3.9) Extended Services

 What is Extended Services? 

Prior to Version 2.0, IBM offered two separate packages with each release 
of OS/2:  Standard Edition and Extended Edition.  Extended Edition included 
extra, bundled software products:  the Communications Manager (for 
communication with IBM mainframes, minicomputers, and other hosts), 
Database Manager (a full, network aware, relational database), and LAN 

IBM has now unbundled the Extended Edition features, dropped LAN Requester 
from the package (now available separately, with IBM's LAN Server), updated 
it for OS/2 2.x, and renamed it Extended Services 1.0.  ES, by itself, no 
longer includes the base operating system as Extended Edition once did.  

This new arrangement makes it easier to update the base operating system 
with CSDs [See (4.6) Corrective Service Diskettes].  And now ES 1.0 will 
run under OS/2 1.3 Standard Edition as well as OS/2 2.x.  Also, ES 1.0, 
like OS/2 2.x itself, is designed to operate on both IBM and non-IBM 
systems [See (2.1) Hardware Requirements].  

While Extended Services will remain available, IBM has decided to further 
separate the ES components.  DB/2, a full 32-bit relational database, is 
available separately as a replacement for ES's Database Manager.  
Communication Manager/2 is now also available by itself.  With each 
component available "a la carte," you can configure your OS/2 system to 
your exact specifications (almost always at a lower cost), and you are free 
to substitute similar products from other vendors (so you aren't locked 
into IBM's offerings).  

 Related information: 
 (1.2) Differences Between Versions 
 (2.1) Hardware Requirements 
 (3.8) Networking Products 
 (4.6) Corrective Service Diskettes 

(3.10) Special Software Offers

 Are there any special software offers I should know about? 

Here are some of the OS/2 software products that represent particularly 
good values.  Most prices do not include shipping and handling.  

o FaxWorks.  SofNet is offering a native OS/2 fax application which 
supports faxing from DOS, Windows, and OS/2 applications.  SendFax, Class 
1, Class 2, Brooktree, Intel, and other faxmodems are supported.  The 
standalone version is just $99 direct from SofNet (phone 800-4FAXWORKS or 
404-984-8088, or FAX 404-984-9956); ask about network versions.  

o Novastor's Novaback Tape Backup Software.  This package supports a wide 
variety of tape drives, but check ahead to see if yours is supported.  
Available for $112 from Programmer's Connection, phone 800-336-1166 or 

o IBM C Set ++.  IBM has released its C++ compiler for OS/2 at a special 
price.  Through August 31, C Set ++ is $175 on diskette, $149 on CD-ROM.  
To order call 800-342-6672 in the U.S.  or 800-465-7999 in Canada.  Outside 
North America, contact your local IBM dealer.  C Set ++ on diskette is IBM 
Part No.  61G1175; on CD-ROM, 61G1412.  

o Borland C++ for OS/2.  Available from Below Zero in Calgary (phone 
800-461-2777, 403-547-0669, or FAX 403-547-1018) for about $136 U.S., 
including shipping.  Add GST in Canada.  Below Zero will export outside 
North America.  

o IBM PL/I.  Not everyone is a PL/I programmer, but IBM is offering free 
copies of Workframe/2 with every purchase and free product videos.  Phone 
800-426-3346 ext.  STL10 for more information on the two packages 

o IBM TCP/IP for OS/2.  The universal peer-to-peer networking solution.  In 
the United States the base package is available for $131 from IBM Direct 
(phone 800-IBM-2-YOU); NFS (for disk sharing) and X Windows add-ons are $95 
each.  Part numbers are 02G6968, 02G6970, and 02G6980, respectively.  Both 
3.5 inch and 5.25 inch media are included in each package.  Additional 
license certificates are available at a lower cost.  

o New Lotus Applications.  Lotus 1-2-3 2.0 and Freelance Graphics 2.0 for 
OS/2 are now available.  These 32-bit, Workplace Shell and HPFS aware 
applications are available at the same prices as the DOS and Windows 
counterparts.  For educational discounts in the United States contact 
Douglas Stewart Co.  (phone 800-279-2795).  

o Imara ScanTool.  Imara Research Corp.  is offering its OS/2 ScanTool 
software at a special price of $99 with a 30 day money back guarantee.  
Works with HP ScanJet, ScanJet Plus, ScanJet IIP, and ScanJet IIC scanners.  
Saves files as PCX, raw TIFF, or compressed TIFF.  Phone Imara at 
416-581-1740 (or FAX 416-581-1605) for more information or to order.  

o DeScribe.  DeScribe 4.0, the first 32-bit Workplace Shell and HPFS aware 
word processor for OS/2, is available for $275 from the IBM OS/2 Hotline 
(phone 800-3-IBM-OS2).  To qualify for this price you must have purchased 
something else (anything else, e.g.  the $15 March OS/2 2.1 Beta CD-ROM) 
through the Hotline.  The price includes any minor maintenance and the next 
full release of DeScribe.  DeScribe is also available at the educational 
price of $125 by calling 800-448-1586 or 916-646-1111, or by FAX at 
916-923-3447; ask for Monica.  

o Conner Backup Exec.  Conner, through some recent acquisitions, has 
obtained expertise in OS/2 backup software.  Backup Exec is the latest 
effort, on sale at a special price of $69.  Call 800-468-2587 for more 
information or to order.  

o Corel Draw 2.5.  Corel Systems has dropped the price of Corel Draw 2.5 
for OS/2 to just $199 (list).  

o Corel SCSI Software.  Corel Systems offers a SCSI driver package which 
will give you additional support for removeable media (such as 
magneto-optical drives) under OS/2 (and DOS).  This package is available 
for $64.95 from Computability (phone 800-554-9948 or FAX 414-357-7814).  

o PFS:Works.  Spinnaker has slashed the price of PFS:Works for OS/2, an 
integrated software package providing word processing, spreadsheet, 
charting, database, and communications functions.  Many dealers are 
carrying PFS:Works for OS/2 for under $40, including Indelible Blue (phone 
919-834-7005, FAX 919-783-8380).  

o WordPerfect 5.2.  WordPerfect Corp.  will ship WordPerfect 5.2 for OS/2 
in June, 1993.  If you already have WordPerfect 5.2 for Windows, you may 
obtain the diskettes for the OS/2 version for about $25, thanks to 
WordPerfect's generous multiplatform license.  (A manual is extra.)  
Contact WordPerfect for details, including educational and nonupgrade 
pricing.  WordPerfect can be reached at 800-451-5151 or FAX 801-222-5077.  

o Norton Commander.  Through June 30, Symantec is offering the Norton 
Commander for OS/2 for just $49.  Norton Commander is a file manager and 
menuing system.  To order phone 800-343-4714 or FAX 303-727-4611.  

o Relish.  Relish is a 32-bit PIM (personal information manager), handling 
scheduling and calendar functions.  Relish is now available for only $69 
directly from Sundial Systems; mention the "OS/2 User Group Birthday 
Special" when ordering.  A demonstration version of Relish is available 
from (3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources.  

o IBM DB2/2.  The single user version of IBM's Database 2 for OS/2 is on 
sale through August 31 for just $199 (part no.  62G3648).  This powerful, 
32-bit database is the successor to the Database Manager found in Extended 
Services.  Server versions are available.  
  Related information: 
  (3.1) Applications 
  (3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources 

(3.11) Backup Software

 What backup software is available? 

Generally DOS backup programs will work under OS/2 2.1, but they may not 
capture some OS/2 data (especially extended attributes) on the hard disk 
without the assistance of utilities such as EABackup [See (3.2) Shareware 
and Freeware Sources].  

OS/2 backup tools are available, notably:  

  Software Title           Company              Telephone
  PMTape and PS2Tape       IBM                  (800) IBM-CALL
  Sytos Plus               Sytron               (508) 898-0100
                                                BBS (508) 898-2608
  EZTape and Backup Exec   Irwin (Conner)       (800) 821-8782
  DMS/Intelligent Backup   Sterling             (916) 635-5535
  FileSafe                 Mountain             (408) 438-2665
  KeepTrack Plus           Finot                (800) 748-6480
  Back in a Flash!         CCT Inc.             (612) 339-5870
  NovaBack                 NovaStor             (818) 707-9900
  OBackup                  ?                    See (3.2) Shareware and  
                                                Freeware Sources
  BackMaster               MSR Development      (409) 564-1862
  MaynStream               Maynard              (407) 263-3500
The OS/2 BACKUP utility is best used from an OS/2 diskette boot [See (4.4) 
Starting OS/2 from Diskette].  

 Related information: 
 (3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources 
 (4.4) Starting OS/2 from Diskette 

(3.12) Multiuser Extensions and Security

 What multiuser extensions and security options are available? 

As shipped, OS/2 does not support multiuser operation, although third 
parties have grafted multiuser capabilities onto the base operating system.  
These products include:  

  Software Title       Company              Telephone
  Remote-OS            Software Lifeline    (407) 994-4466
  OS2You               ?                    See (3.2) Shareware and  
                                            Freeware Sources
  Citrix               Citrix Systems       (305) 755-0559
  PolyMod2             MemSoft              (407) 997-6655
PC/DACS (Pyramid, phone 203-257-4223) offers security (for multiple users, 
one at a time, in a lab setting for example).  

IBM LAN Server provides local security (as well as LAN-oriented multiuser 

 Related information: 
 (3.8) Networking Products 

(4.1) Installation

 I am having trouble installing OS/2 2.1.  What should I do? 

First consult the Installation Guide and other materials accompanying OS/2 
2.1.  Make sure your PC meets the system requirements in (2.1) Hardware 

And if the following instructions do not help, fall back on IBM's toll free 
technical support (phone 800-992-4777 in the United States) and/or consult 
IBM's Tips and Techniques file [See (3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources].  

o Some PCs have trouble printing under OS/2 2.1.  This problem can often be 
traced to an interrupt conflict, a substandard cable, an interfering 
software security "dongle," or a faulty printer adapter.  LPT1 uses IRQ 7, 
and LPT2, if installed, uses IRQ 5. Interrupts should not be shared on AT 
bus machines.  The SoundBlaster, for example, comes set to IRQ 7. Reset it 
to an unused interrupt.  

o Make sure adapters with onboard ROMs are not conflicting with other 
adapters.  For example, many SuperVGA adapters use large segments of upper 
memory, and many hard disk adapters have onboard ROMs which can be mapped 
into the same areas.  Adapters must not share address space or interrupts.  
Check your product manuals for more help.  

o Be sure adequate free disk space is available before installing, 
including space for a swap file.  Drives compressed using Stacker or 
similar utilities should be uncompressed before installing (unless access 
to these drives from OS/2 is not needed).  [An OS/2 version of Stacker is 
available, as is Proportional Software's (phone 303-484-2665) DCF/2 
on-the-fly disk compression package.] 

o Do not select HPFS when installing if your machine has 6 MB of RAM or 
less, or diminished performance will likely result.  Change the IFS=...HPFS 
line in your CONFIG.SYS to REM IFS=...  if necessary.  

o Be sure your CMOS setup parameters are set correctly, especially those 
relating to floppy drives.  RAM should be given sufficient wait states and 
precharge cycles.  Test with cache memory and/or shadow RAM disabled if 
necessary.  The AT bus should run at 8 MHz.  For best performance, make 
sure all your RAM is set to be cacheable.  

o If you are using the IBMINT13.I13 driver to access an MFM, RLL, or ESDI 
hard drive, and the hard drive has more than 1024 cylinders, be certain 
your hard disk adapter's sector translation mode is enabled.  

o Some Quantum LPS105AT IDE hard disks require a free ROM update (to 
Version 2.6) from the manufacturer to work with OS/2.  

o If your AMI keyboard BIOS is below Revision F you may need an update.  
Contact Washburn & Assoc.  (phone 716-248-3627) for an inexpensive 

o Check to make sure keyboard DIP switches are set correctly.  For example, 
if the keyboard is attached to a system with an AT bus it should typically 
be switched to "AT" mode.  

o "Autoswitching" on non-IBM EGA adapters should be disabled (usually with 
a DIP switch or jumper setting).  In rare cases it may be necessary to 
switch third party VGA/SuperVGA adapters into 8-bit mode and/or disable 
"autosense."  See (2.2) SuperVGA Support.  

o OS/2 is particularly sensitive to bad RAM or cache memory (often 
reflected in TRAP 0002 error messages).  Use a thorough RAM testing 
utility, and try not to mix 9-chip and 3-chip SIMM/SIPP memory modules.  
When upgrading, avoid adding RAM which is not rated (in nanoseconds) at 
least as fast (i.e.  with an equal or lower number) as the RAM already in 
the system.  

o Allow several minutes for OS/2 2.1 to build your desktop (and display 
icons) at the end of installation -- take the Tutorial offered to you in 
the meantime.  Avail yourself of the "Start Here" icon, the other online 
help, and the README file located in the root directory.  They will help in 
getting started with the Workplace Shell and in properly configuring your 

o When installing over a beta version of OS/2 be sure to reformat.  

o To install the Upgrade Edition of OS/2 2.1, DOS or OS/2 must already 
reside on the hard disk.  If Diskette 1 is not write protected then the 
installation program will record a file indicating that upgrade terms have 
been satisfied and, in the future, will not require DOS or OS/2 on the hard 
disk to install.  

o OS/2 uses the same diskette format as DOS, so use DISKCOPY to backup the 
installation diskettes and verify that none have been corrupted.  

o Owners of IBM PS/2s should make sure that any applicable ECAs 
(engineering changes) have been performed and that the most recent 
Reference Diskette is in use.  Reference Diskettes are available from the 
IBM PC Co.  BBS (modem 404-835-6600).  

o Try disconnecting any tape backup device if "Cannot find COUNTRY.SYS" 
messages are encountered when booting OS/2.  

o An Always IN-2000 SCSI adapter with BIOS 3.06A or 3.20 requires an 
updated version from the manufacturer.  A companion 8-pin serial PROM chip 
may also need to be updated.  Contact Always at 818-597-9595.  Also ask 
about non-IBMINT13.I13 driver support.  

o The TI TM4000 notebook may require a BIOS update to run OS/2 2.1; phone 
817-771-5856 for help.  

o For the technically advanced user, the following list of TRAP error codes 
may help you in addressing OS/2 problems.  

     Code           Description 
     0000           Divide by zero error 
     0001           Debug exception 
     0002           Non Maskable Interrupt (usually memory parity error) 
     0003           Breakpoint (one byte INT 3 instruction) 
     0004           Overflow 
     0005           Bounds check (BOUND instruction) 
     0006           Invalid opcode 
     0007           Coprocessor not available 
     0008           Double fault 
     0009           (Reserved) 
     000A           Invalid TSS 
     000B           Segment not present 
     000C           Stack exception 
     000D           General protection 
     000E           Page fault 
     000F           (Reserved) 
     0010           Coprocessor error 
     0011-001F      (Reserved) 
     0020-00FF      Available for external interrupts via INTR pin 

o For the technically advanced user who wishes to install a secondary 
diskette controller (provided it uses a separate DMA channel, IRQ, and I/O 
address), the following parameters are available for the 

     Parameter   Description 
     /MCA        Load on Microchannel machine 
     /A:x        Adapter ID (where x is 0 or 1) 
     /IRQ:x      Interrupt level (where x is a number) 
     /DMA:x      DMA channel (where x is a number) 
     /P:hhhh     Controller I/O address (hhhh) 
     /U:x        Drive number (where x is 0 to 3) 
     /F:ccc      Drive capacity (where ccc is 360KB to 2.88MB) 
     /CL:tttt    Changeline type (where tttt is NONE, AT, or PS2) 
     /SPEC:hh    Controller specify bytes (hh) 

    BASEDEV=IBM1FLPY.ADD /A:0 /DMA:3 /IRQ:10 /P:370 /U:0 /F:360KB
  Related information: 
  (2.1) Hardware Requirements 
  (2.2) SuperVGA Support 
  (3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources 
  (4.6) Corrective Service Diskettes 

(4.2) Installing from Drive B

 I can't install OS/2 2.1 from Drive B.  What's wrong? 

IBM OS/2 2.1 can only be installed starting from Drive A, like DOS (unless 
your BIOS supports booting from Drive B).  After booting from Drive A, OS/2 
can then be copied from CD-ROM or across a network.  (For more information 
on installation across a network, see Remote Installation and Maintenance, 
IBM Publication No.  GG24-3780.  Related publications include Automated 
Installation for CID Enabled OS/2 2.0, IBM Pub.  No.  GG24-3783, and 
Automated Installation for CID Enabled Extended Services, LAN Server 3.0 
and Network Transport Services/2, IBM Pub.  No.  GG24-3781.)  If you have 
the wrong disk size go back to your dealer and obtain the correct media.  
Otherwise you could open your machine and swap floppy drive cable 
connectors, use your system's setup utility to set the new CMOS parameters, 
and then install OS/2 from the "new" Drive A. Sometimes the floppy drive 
cable connectors will not be the same.  If so you can obtain an adapter 

You may also use IBM's twin "bootstrap" diskette images [See (3.2) 
Shareware and Freeware Sources] to boot from a 5.25 inch Drive A and 
install using 3.5 inch OS/2 diskettes inserted into Drive B. This procedure 
should only be used if absolutely necessary.  

 Related information: 
 (3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources 
 (4.1) Installation 

(4.3) Hard Disk Partitioning

 What is the best way to partition my hard disk for OS/2? 

There is no single best way to partition your hard disk for OS/2.  For some 
advice on the subject you should consult the IBM OS/2 Installation and 
Planning Guide, available for download from (3.2) Shareware and Freeware 
Sources, and the OS/2 Installation Guide in the OS/2 package.  

It can be useful to place OS/2 by itself in a separate partition of about 
40 or 50 MB.  If you then elect to experiment with beta releases of OS/2, 
you can reformat that particular partition quite easily to erase all old 
code.  The swap file can be placed on another partition; its location is 
determined by the SWAPPATH line in CONFIG.SYS.  

Partitioning should be performed by booting the OS/2 Installation Disk.  
Executing FDISK from the command line will not allow certain functions to 
be performed.  

 Related information: 
 (1.5) High Performance File System 
 (3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources 

(4.4) Starting OS/2 from Diskette (and CHKDSK)

How do I access HPFS partitions on my hard drive without booting from the 
hard drive?  I'm getting error messages now -- how do I "repair" my hard 

With IBM OS/2 2.1, insert the Installation Diskette, Shutdown (if 
necessary), and reboot.  When prompted insert Diskette 1 and press ENTER.  
When prompted, press ESC.  You will be given an OS/2 command line prompt.  
From there you can make necessary changes to your hard disk -- an OS/2 
character mode text editor on diskette is handy for such changes.  (Make 
sure you backup CONFIG.SYS before making any changes so that you can easily 
revert to the old version should things go wrong.)  

You may use this diskette boot method to run CHKDSK on your FAT or HPFS 
volumes.  After you reach the command line, insert Diskette 2. Do not log 
to another drive.  Type CHKDSK X:  /F to repair most kinds of damage to 
your hard disk, replacing X with the appropriate drive letter.  (If you are 
checking a HPFS disk, use /F:3 if you have the time.)  OS/2 CHKDSK will 
also mark your hard disk as accessible, if possible, should OS/2 "lock it 
out" for some reason.  It will also allow Workplace Shell drive objects to 
open properly if they are not functioning correctly.  Repeat for each drive 
letter you wish to check and/or repair.  

"Errors" may be reported by CHKDSK if OS/2 was booted from the hard disk.  
These "errors" are normal.  Since the hard drive is in use by OS/2 itself 
(and files are open) CHKDSK is unable to accurately report errors.  

The best way to avoid the need to perform CHKDSK is to always select 
Refresh then Shutdown.  Click on the Workplace Shell desktop background 
using mouse button two to bring up the appropriate menu.  Also, avoid 
manipulating OS/2-related files when using native DOS.  Finally, enable 
autochecking for all your hard disk volumes.  For HPFS volumes use the 
/AUTOCHECK parameter in the IFS=...HPFS line in your CONFIG.SYS.  For FAT 
volumes use the AC parameter in the DISKCACHE line of your CONFIG.SYS.  See 
the online Command Reference for details.  

Several utilities [including BOOTOS2; See (3.2) Shareware and Freeware 
Sources] can create a single, bootable OS/2 diskette (as a convenience).  
Preloaded versions of OS/2 2.0 can create a bootable diskette pair from the 
Welcome folder.  (This step, along with a full BACKUP after a diskette 
boot, should be performed immediately upon receipt of any IBM preloaded 
OS/2 2.0 system.)  

 Related information: 
 (1.5) High Performance File System 
 (3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources 

(4.5) Technical Support

 How can I get answers to my OS/2 questions? 

If your question is not answered in this List, post a note to the 
appropriate Usenet conference:  comp.os.os2.apps carries discussions 
related to finding or using any application running under OS/2, 
comp.os.os2.networking looks at networking issues, comp.os.os2.advocacy 
deals with opinions and speculation, comp.os.os2.programmer.porting helps 
programmers move applications over to OS/2 from other operating systems and 
environments, comp.os.os2.programmer.misc addresses anything else related 
to OS/2 programming, comp.os.os2.beta explores beta releases of OS/2, 
comp.os.os2.ver1x supports all releases of OS/2 prior to Version 2.0, 
comp.os.os2.announce carries important OS/2 announcements, comp.os.os2.bugs 
discusses possible bugs found in released versions of the operating system, 
comp.os.os2.multimedia fosters conversation about OS/2 multimedia 
(including MMPM/2), comp.os.os2.setup offers a place to talk about setup 
and installation issues, and comp.os.os2.misc is for any other OS/2-related 
discussion.  These groups are watched closely by OS/2 experts from IBM.  
Also, comp.lang.rexx discusses REXX programming.  

Internet Relay Chat (IRC) has a dedicated channel (#os/2) which provides 
round-the-clock, real time OS/2 support and information thanks to the 
efforts of several volunteers.  If you are not familiar with IRC, ask your 
system administrator for help.  

A LISTSERVer distributes its own OS/2 conference by mail; send a single 
line message with the word HELP to listserv@cc1.kuleuven.ac.be for full 
instructions; or send the same message to listserv@frors12.circe.fr for 
information on an unedited mailing list.  To subscribe to the Multimedia 
Presentation Manager/2 [See (3.6) Multimedia] mailing list, send a single 
line message with the phrase SUBSCRIBE MMOS2-L (Your Name) to 

Your local FidoNet BBS may carry OS/2 echo conferences and/or OS2NET.  If 
not, ask your system operator to join them.  CompuServe (FIND OS/2) and 
Prodigy are also excellent resources.  

The IBM PC Co.  BBS's (modem 404-835-6600) message areas, product database, 
and PS/2 Assistant file(s) are invaluable resources.  Information on the 
IBM OS/2 BBS is included in the OS/2 2.1 package.  In the United States IBM 
has toll free technical support (phone 800-992-4777), an OS/2 Hotline ( 
general information, orders, upgrades, phone 800-3-IBM-OS2; ask about OS/2 
videotapes, T-shirts, and other accessories), the HelpWare Center (phone 
800-PS2-2227), a software order line (phone 800-IBM-CALL), two FAX 
information services (phone 800-IBM-4FAX and/or 800-IBM-3395), and an 
educational inquiries/order line (phone 800-222-7257).  In Canada phone IBM 
Personal Systems Software at 800-465-1234.  

OS/2 2.1 developers should contact the IBM Developer Assistance Program 
(phone 407-982-6408); membership is free.  (You may also join on CompuServe 
with GO OS2DAP.)  The OS/2 Professional Developer's Kit CD-ROM, containing 
a wide selection of development tools and code, is available from IBM 
(phone 800-3-IBM-OS2 to order in the United States for $20, express 
shipping included; in Canada, phone 800-465-1234; in Australia, phone 
Rohaini Cain or Mike Voris at 13-2426 ext.  7684; elsewhere, contact the 
International OS/2 User Group by phoning 285-641175 in the U.K.)  The OS/2 
Device Driver Source Kit CD-ROM is also now available from IBM, part no.  
71G3703.  To order phone 407-982-4239 (FAX 407-982-4218) in North America, 
61-2-354-7684 (FAX 61-2-354-7766) in most of the Far East and Pacific Rim, 
81-3-5563-5897 (FAX 81-3-5563-4957) in Japan, 81-2-528-1548 (FAX 
82-2-528-1414) in Korea, or 011-52-627-1846 (FAX 011-52-395-7812) in Latin 

IBM offers classes worldwide to help in using and programming OS/2 2.1; 
phone your local IBM branch office (or the OS/2 Hotline) for more 
information.  Or contact one of these third party providers of classes 
training materials:  

  Company                                 Telephone 
  Acumen People and Productivity          61-3-853-6662 
  Adaptive Research and Design            305-889-0070 
  Adar International                      212-750-5820 
  Allied Computer Service                 Singapore 2948741 
  AOSI                                    415-586-3454 
  Applied Learning                        708-369-3000 
  ATI                                     310-823-1129 
  Ron Beauchemin                          203-285-5896 
  Bell and Associates                     61-2-953-7619 
  Broadway and Seymour                    800-274-9287 
  Chapman and Associates                  714-831-4442 
  Charles Hatvany and Associates          617-648-4100 
  CIE                                     800-882-3981 
  Computer Information Associates         708-766-4677 
  Computer Training Center                901-753-9706 
  CompuTrainers                           212-984-0522 
  Comsell                                 404-872-2500 
  Creative Systems Programming            609-234-1500 
  David Bernstein Company                 206-282-8711 
  Denenfeld Systems Design                519-396-8088 
  Descriptor Systems                      319-362-3906 
  Development Technologies                803-790-1234 
  Edutrends                               201-838-6700 
  Chris Eldridge Pty Ltd.                 61-2-016-289-093 
  Electronic Directions                   212-213-6500 
  Fermier Consulting and Education        817-481-4966 
  Future Enterprises                      202-662-7676 
  Gateway Technologies Corp.              203-693-1097 
  Hailey Griffin Corp.                    416-475-4200 
  Huffman and Associates                  805-461-1053 
  Iconisys                                805-522-8863 
  InfoLink Solutions                      404-876-1512 
  Infotec Training Institute              800-282-7990 
  Instruction Set                         617-890-4930 
  Instructional Systems Co.               212-477-8800 
  Instructware                            800-267-0101 
  iQ Training Systems                     44-71-613-5771 
  IS International                        407-994-4373 
  JRT Information Services                407-547-0178 
  Jensen Enterprises                      616-429-9599 
  Kee Systems                             301-880-0880 
  Kemtex Services                         212-661-5770 
  Knowhow Solutions                       61-2-955-9592 
  Dr. Michael S. Kogan                    904-246-8341 
  Logical Operations                      716-482-7700 
  Management Technology Education         61-2-261-5555 
  Mannix Enterprises                      914-229-8109 
  Mentor Technologies                     614-265-3170 
  Microtransfer                           44-869-50340 
  Minasi and Company                      703-276-8940 
  Object Management Laboratory            818-879-9620 
  One on One Computer Training            708-628-0500 
  One Up Corp.                            214-620-1123 
  PC Dialogs                              212-663-3459 
  PC Etcetera                             212-736-5870 
  PCLC                                    212-953-9800 
  Professional Development Assoc.         Singapore 2272883 
  Pinnacle Technology                     918-455-2520 
  Productivity Point International        800-848-0980 
  Productivity Solutions                  215-631-5685 
  Professional Development Assoc.         44-71-706-3744 
  Progressive Software Technologies       303-932-2051 
  QED Information Sciences                800-343-4848 
  Rockey and Assoc.                       215-640-4880 
  SCS Computer Consulting                 718-321-1572 
  Kenneth E. Sanger                       914-948-8496 
  SE International                        407-241-3428 
  Sims Software Technology                415-731-2222 
  Software Education Corp.                908-946-0606 
  Software Paradise                       44-222-887521 
  Soza & Company                          703-560-9477 
  Stratemm Pacific Ltd.                   New Zealand 07-578-5100 
  Testek                                  207-539-8825 
  Touchstone Systems Group                312-263-1444 
  User View                               612-331-7212 
  ViaGrafix U.S.                          918-825-6700 
  VisGrafix Australia                     61-9-417-3178 
  Wave Technologies Training              214-650-9283 
  William H. Zack & Assoc.                203-255-2979 
  Worthman & Assoc.                       303-290-9700 
For a free copy of the IBM IV League catalog (with OS/2 books, videotapes, 
and other support materials), phone 800-342-6672.  For more information on 
the IBM IV (Independent Vendor) League, an organization of individuals and 
companies who develop and market products and services that support OS/2, 
call 203-262-3769 or 203-262-3776.  You may also dial the IV League BBS at 

If you need to reach any individual at IBM, but you do not know that 
person's direct telephone number, call the IBM Switchboard at 800-IBM-3333.  

See (4.9) Books and Magazines for information on OS/2 publications.  

Any of the regular DOS or Windows resources (e.g.  books, magazines, 
shareware/freeware sources) will be useful since both environments come 
with OS/2 2.1.  

  Related information: 
  (1.3)  DOS and Windows Compatibility 
  (3.2)  Shareware and Freeware Sources 
  (3.6)  Multimedia
  (4.8)  User Groups 
  (4.9)  Books and Magazines 
  (4.10) Problem Report Form 

(4.6) Corrective Service Diskettes

 What are CSDs, how do I tell which I have, and where do I get them? 

CSDs are Corrective Service Diskettes, or bug fixes (Service Paks), 
periodically issued by IBM.  The OS/2 CSD level number may be obtained 
using the command SYSLEVEL from an OS/2 command line prompt.  CSDs are 
cumulative, i.e.  only the most recent CSD is required to bring a system up 
from any previous CSD level.  However, CSDs only apply within a major 
version number.  For example, an upgrade, not a CSD, would bring OS/2 
Version 2.0 up to Version 2.1.  Note also that each national language (e.g.  
French, U.K.  English) uses a distinct CSD.  

CSDs may be ordered by phoning 800-3-IBM-OS2.  Customers with IBM customer 
numbers (usually large sites) should phone 800-237-5511 or order through 
IBMLink.  Outside the United States, ask an authorized IBM dealer or 
representative for the CSD.  CSDs may also be downloaded from the IBM PC 
Co.  BBS (modem 404-835-6600), CompuServe (FIND OS/2), or from (3.2) 
Shareware and Freeware Sources.  And CSDs may be ordered through IBM's OS/2 

The latest, current OS/2 2.1 CSD level will be listed in this List and in 
the PS/2 Assistant files.  At present there is no Service Pak for OS/2 2.1.  

 Related information: 
 (3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources 

(4.7) Online Services

 Which online services support OS/2, and how do I join? 

IBM's official non-IBM online service for OS/2 user and developer support 
is CompuServe (FIND OS/2).  In the United States you can obtain CompuServe 
membership information by phoning 800-848-8199.  

IBM maintains an unofficial presence on many other networks.  For 
information on the Internet consult one of the many books describing the 
network.  One example:  The Whole Internet by Ed Krol, O'Reilly & 
Associates (phone 707-829-0515), ISBN 1-56592-025-2.  Once you start using 
the Internet you should peruse the information files posted to the 
news.answers newsgroup to familiarize yourself with Internet resources.  

The OS/2 Roundtable (Page 1400, Keyword OS2) has opened on GEnie.  To 
subscribe to GEnie, set your communications software to half duplex and 
either 1200 or 2400 bps then have your modem dial 800-638-8369 
(800-387-8330 in Canada).  Upon connection, type HHH and press RETURN.  At 
the U#= prompt type SIGNUP and press RETURN, then follow the directions 

See (3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources, (4.5) Technical Support, and 
(4.11) OS/2 BBSes for information on other online services with high OS/2 

 Related information: 
 (3.2)  Shareware and Freeware Sources 
 (4.5)  Technical Support 
 (4.11) OS/2 BBSes 

(4.8) User Groups

 Are there any OS/2 user groups? 

The following OS/2 user groups meet regularly:  
      Northeast Ohio (Akron) OS/2 User Group 
      Contact: Garey Smiley (phone 216-630-3565)
      Atlanta OS/2 Users Group 
      Contact: Robert Cannon (phone 404-908-2121)
      Baton Rouge OS/2 Users Group 
      Contact: David Arbour (phone 504-753-9637)
      North Suburban Chicago OS/2 User's Group 
      Contact: James Schmidt (phone 708-317-7405)
      Greater Chicago OS/2 User Group 
      Contact: Lisa Der Mateosian (phone 312-245-6418)
      West Suburban Chicago OS/2 User Group 
      Contact: Dwight Cannon (phone 708-742-0700 ext. 2170)
      Mid Missouri (Columbia) OS/2 Users Group 
      Contact: Woody Sturges (BBS 314-446-0016)
      Denver OS/2 User's Group 
      Contact: Ronald Van Iwaarden (BBS 303-744-0373)
      Computer Users of Erie (Pennsylvania) OS/2 SIG 
      Contact: Tom Kuklinski (phone 814-866-5396)
      Fort Wayne OS/2 Users Group 
      Contact: Stephen Gutknecht (phone 219-484-0062)
      Indianapolis OS/2 Users Group 
      Contact: Jay Schultz (phone 317-634-8080)
      Las Vegas OS/2 User Group 
      Contact: Karu Karunaratne (phone 702-435-0018, BBS 702-433-5535)
      Long Island OS/2 User's Group 
      Contact: Jeffrey Altman (phone 516-444-3751)
      Los Angeles OS/2 Users Group 
      Contact: Paul Duncanson (phone 805-584-6721)
      Minnesota OS/2 User Group 
      Contact: Marcus Krumpholz (phone 612-869-7956, BBS 612-379-8272)
      Montreal OS/2 Users Group 
      Contact: Gilbert Daigle (phone 514-923-9964)
      New England OS/2 User Group 
      Contact: Dave Pinard (phone 203-954-1872)
      Phoenix PC User Group and OS/2 SIG 
      Contact: 602-222-8511
      Triangle (Raleigh, North Carolina) OS/2 User Group 
      Contact: Steve Gallagher (phone 919-254-5637)
      Sacramento OS/2 Users Group 
      Contact: Charlie Kotan (phone 916-641-4007)
      San Diego OS/2 User Group 
      Contact: Craig Swanson (BBS 619-558-9475)
      Bay Area (San Francisco) OS/2 User Group 
      Contact: Sanford Rockowitz (phone 415-755-3124)
      Singapore (NUS) OS/2 User Group 
      Contact: N. Sriram (Internet: swknasri@nuscc.nus.sg)
      Tampa Bay OS/2 User Group 
      Contact: Paul Wylie (phone 813-786-4567)
      International OS/2 User Group (based in the U.K.)
      Contact: Mike Gove (phone +44(0)285-641175 or FAX +44(0)285-640181)
      Wellington (New Zealand) OS/2 Users' Group 
      Contact: Andrew McMillian (phone 801-4764 days, 233-9123 evenings)
      Westchester (New York) OS/2 User Group 
      Contact: Patrick Pearce (phone 914-762-8950)

[OS/2 user groups:  please send information on your group to the author.  
See (0.0) Introduction and Credits.] See (6.1) Promoting OS/2 for 
information on IBM assistance to OS/2 user groups.  

  Related information: 
  (0.0) Introduction and Credits 
  (4.5) Technical Support 
  (6.1) Promoting OS/2

(4.9) Books and Magazines

 What OS/2 books and magazines are available? 

OS/2 has its own magazines:  OS/2 Developer Magazine (phone 800-WANT-OS2 or 
708-647-5960, FAX 708-647-0537), OS/2 Monthly (mail 
72550.2440@compuserve.com or phone 800-365-2642), Inside OS/2 (phone 
502-491-1900), OS/2 Professional (phone 301-770-7302), and the OS/2 
Newsletter (phone 714-495-3757).  

Many OS/2 2.x books can be ordered by calling IBM Fulfillment Headquarters 
at 800-342-6672.  Or you may obtain OS/2 books through most computer book 

Here are just a few of the OS/2 2.x books available, with ISBN and IBM 
Publication Number, if available:  

o Designing OS/2 Applications, John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 0-471-58889-X, IBM 
Publication No.  SC28-2701.  

o Easy OS/2, QUE, ISBN 1-56529-145-X.  

o The Little Book of OS/2:  2.1 Edition, Peachpit Press.  

o Micro Focus COBOL/2 Workbench for the Application Developer, QED.  

o OS/2 for Non-Nerds, New Riders, ISBN 1-56205-153-9, IBM Pub.  No.  

o OS/2 Inside & Out (2.1), Osborne McGraw-Hill.  

o OS/2 2.x Notebook:  The Best of OS/2 Developer Magazine, Van Nostrand 
Reinhold, ISBN 0-442-01522-4, IBM Pub.  No.  G362-0015.  

o OS/2 2.1 Complete, Abacus.  

o OS/2 2.1 Programming, Osborne McGraw-Hill, ISBN 0-07-881910-5.  

o OS/2 2.1 Unleashed, Sams, ISBN 0-672-30240-3, IBM Pub.  No.  SR28-4318.  

o The Shell Collection:  OS/2 2.1 Utilities, Van Nostrand Reinhold.  

o Stepping Up to OS/2 2.1, Abacus, ISBN 1-55755-185-5.  

o Ten-Minute Guide to OS/2 2.1, Alpha, ISBN 1-56761-185-0, IBM Pub.  No.  

o Using OS/2 2.1:  Special Edition, QUE, ISBN 1-56529-118-2, IBM Pub.  No.  

o Your OS/2 Consultant, Sams.  

o Advanced OS/2 for Programming Managers, John Wiley & Sons.  

o Dvorak's Guide to OS/2, Random House.  

o OS/2 for Dummies (2.1), IDG, ISBN 1-878058-76-2.  

o OS/2 Instant Reference Book, Sybex.  

o The OS/2 2.1 User's Bible, Abacus.  

o OS/2 2.1 Power User's Guide, Van Nostrand Reinhold.  

o Real-World Programming for OS/2, Sams.  

o Learn OS/2 in a Day, Wordware Publishing.  

o Micro Focus CICS Option:  Developing CICS Applications on the PC, QED.  

o OS/2:  The Workplace Shell, A User's Guide & Tutorial for Release 2.1, 
Computer Information Associates.  

o PC Learning Labs Teaches OS/2, Ziff-Davis Press.  

o Quick Reference Guide for OS/2 2.1, DDC.  

o Van Wolverton's Guide to OS/2, Random House.  
IBM's OS/2 "redbooks" (power user guides) are IBM Publication No.  
GBOF-2254.  (To order these and other IBM publications phone your local IBM 
office and ask for the Librarian or phone 800-765-4IBM.)  These redbooks 
are also available in electronic form [See (3.2) Shareware and Freeware 
Sources ]. Other OS/2 publications, such as the OS/2 Technical Library, IBM 
Part No.  10G3356, are available by calling IBM Technical Books at 

IBM also offers the OS/2 Online Book Collection CD-ROM, part no.  53G2166.  
This CD-ROM provides nearly all of the OS/2 publications produced by IBM in 
electronic form.  The CD-ROM includes the following titles:  

  o IBM C Set ++ Version 2.0 

     - IBM WorkFrame/2 Introduction 
     - IBM C/C++ Tools: Browser Introduction 
     - Collection Class Library Reference 
     - IBM C/C++ Tools C Library Reference 
     - IBM C/C++ Tools: C Language Reference 
     - IBM C/C++ Tools: C++ Language Reference 
     - IBM C/C++ Tools: Debugger Introduction 
     - IBM C/C++ Tools: Programming Guide 
     - IBM C/C++ Tools: Standard Class Library Reference 
     - User Interface Class Library Guide 
     - User Interface Class Library Reference 
     - IBM C/C++ Tools: EXTRA Introduction 

  o IBM International Technical Support Center (Red Books) 

     - OS/2 V2.0 Vol 1: Control Program (ITSC) 
     - OS/2 V2.0 Vol 2: DOS and Windows Environment (ITSC) 
     - OS/2 V2.0 Vol 3: PM and Workplace Shell (ITSC) 
     - OS/2 V2.0 Vol 4: Application Development (ITSC) 
     - OS/2 V2.0 Vol 5: Print Subsystem (ITSC) 
     - OS/2 2.1 Technical Update 

  o OS/2 LAN Server Version 2.0 

     - OS/2 LAN Server Migration Handbook 
     - Problem Determination Reference Volume 1: Problem Determination Guide 
     - Network Administrator Reference Volume 2: Performance Tuning 
     - DOS LAN Requester User's Quick Reference 
     - LAN Server User's Quick Reference 
     - Problem Determination Reference Volume 3: LAN Error Messages 
     - LAN Support Program User's Guide 
     - Network Administrator Reference Volume 1: Planning and Installation Guide 
     - Network Administrator Reference Volume 3: Network Administrator's Tasks 
     - Problem Determination Reference Volume 2: LAN Alerts 
     - DOS LAN Requester Windows User's Guide 
     - OS/2 LAN Server Productivity Aids 
     - Network Administrator Reference Supplement for OS/2 2.0 

  o OS/2 LAN Server Version 3.0 

     - PC LAN Program Migration Guide 
     - Problem Determination Reference Volume 1: Problem Determination Guide 
     - Network Administrator Reference Volume 2: Performance Tuning 
     - DLR and DLR Windows User's Quick Reference 
     - OS/2 LAN Requester User's Quick Reference 
     - Problem Determination Reference Volume 3: LAN Error Messages 
     - IBM LAN Support Program User's Guide 
     - Network Administrator Reference Volume 1: Planning and Installation Guide 
     - Network Administrator Reference Volume 3: Network Administrators Tasks 
     - Problem Determination Reference Volume 2: LAN Alerts 
     - OS/2 LAN Server Productivity Aids 
     - LAN Adapter and Protocol Support Configuration Guide 
     - IBM Network Transport Services/2 Redirected Installation and Configuration
     - Messages and Problem Determination Guide 

  o Multimedia Presentation Manager/2 Version 1.1 

     - MMPM/2 Application Programming Guide 
     - MMPM Toolkit/2 
     - CUA Guide to Multimedia User Interface Design 
     - MMPM/2 Programming Reference 
     - OS/2 Multimedia Advantage 

  o Network Transport Services/2 Version 1.0 

     - LAN Adapter and Protocol Support Configuration Guide 
     - IBM Network Transport Services/2 Redirected Installation and
       Configuration Guide
     - Messages and Problem Determination Guide 

  o OS/2 2.0 

     - OS/2 2.0 Information and Planning Guide 
     - Getting Started with Workplace Shell (White Paper) 
     - Upgrading to OS/2 2.0 (White Paper) 
     - IBM OS/2 2.0 Getting Started 
     - OS/2 2.0 Installation Guide 
     - OS/2 2.0 Quick Reference 
     - OS/2 2.0 Command Reference 
     - IBM OS/2 2.0 Migrating to the OS/2 Workplace Shell 
     - OS/2 2.0 Using the Operating System 
     - Tips and Techniques 
     - OS/2 2.0 Adobe Type Manager for WIN-OS/2 
     - OS/2 2.0 Compatibility Information 
     - OS/2 2.0 Using Bidirectional Support 

  o OS/2 2.1 

     - OS/2 2.0 Information and Planning Guide 
     - Getting Started with Workplace Shell (White Paper) 
     - Upgrading to OS/2 2.0 (White Paper) 
     - OS/2 2.1 Using the Operating System 
     - OS/2 2.1 Book Catalog 
     - OS/2 2.1 Installation Guide 
     - OS/2 2.1 Quick Reference 
     - OS/2 2.1 Command Reference 
     - OS/2 2.0 Using Bidirectional Support 
     - OS/2 2.1 Performance Tuning for End Users (White Paper) 
     - OS/2 2.1 Performance Improvements (White Paper) 

  o Operating System/2 2.0 Technical Library 

     - OEM DASD and SCSI Device Driver Support 
     - OS/2 2.0 Programming Guide: Volume III 
     - Getting Started: OS/2 2.1 Toolkit 
     - Getting Started: Toolkit 
     - Information Presentation Facility 
     - Physical Device Driver Reference 
     - Presentation Manager Programming Reference: Volume I 
     - Presentation Manager Programming Reference: Volume II 
     - Presentation Manager Programming Reference: Volume III 
     - Application Design Guide 
     - Procedures Language 2/REXX User's Guide 
     - Presentation Driver Reference 
     - Virtual Device Driver Reference 
     - System Object Model Guide and Reference 
     - OS/2 2.0 Programming Guide: Volume I 
     - OS/2 Programming Guide: Volume II 
     - Bidirectional National Language Support 
     - Control Program Programming Reference 
     - OS/2 2.1 PM Programming Reference: Volume I 
     - OS/2 2.1 PM Programming Reference: Volume II 
     - OS/2 2.1 PM Programming Reference: Volume III 
     - OS/2 2.1 CP Programming Reference 
     - Procedures Language 2/REXX Reference 
     - SAA CUA Advanced Interface Design Reference 
     - SAA CUA Guide to User Interface Design 

  o PL/I Package/2 Version 1.1 

     - PL/I Package/2 Programming Guide 
     - PL/I Package/2 Language Environment Run-Time Messages 
     - PL/I Package/2 Installation 
     - PL/I Package/2 Language Reference 
     - PL/I Package/2 Reference Summary 
     - PL/I Package/2 Fact Sheet 

  o SAA Common User Access Controls Library/2 Version 1.0 

     - Common User Access Controls Library/2 Programming Guide 
     - Common User Access Controls Library/2 PM Reference 
     - Common User Access Controls Library/2 Windows Reference 

  o Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol Version 1.2 for OS/2 

     - IBM TCP/IP Version 1.2 for OS/2: User's Guide 
     - IBM TCP/IP Version 1.2 for OS/2: Installation and Maintenance 
     - IBM TCP/IP Version 1.2 for OS/2: Programmer's Reference 
     - IBM TCP/IP Version 1.2 for OS/2: Quick Reference Guide 

  o Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol Version 1.2.1 for OS/2 

     - IBM TCP/IP Version 1.2.1 for OS/2: User's Guide 
     - IBM TCP/IP Version 1.2.1 for OS/2: LAN Adapter and Protocol Support 
     - IBM TCP/IP Version 1.2.1 for OS/2: Installation and Maintenance 
     - IBM TCP/IP Version 1.2.1 for OS/2: Programmer's Reference 
     - IBM TCP/IP Version 1.2.1 for OS/2: Quick Reference Guide 
  Related information: 
  (4.5) Technical Support 

(4.10) Problem Report Form

 How do I report an OS/2 problem to IBM? 

If you would like to send an OS/2 bug report to IBM, you may phone IBM at 
800-992-4777 (in the U.S.)  or you may fill in the OS/2 Problem Report Form 
and mail it to IBM via CompuServe or the Internet.  

The Problem Report Form helps IBM solve your problem more quickly, 
especially if you include all the relevant details.  IBM then has to ask 
fewer questions in order to determine the problem.  

To use the Problem Report Form, follow these steps:  

1. If you are reading the INF version of this List, press CTRL-F.  This 
panel will then be saved to a file named TEXT.TMP.  

2. Using a text editor (like the OS/2 System Editor), open either TEXT.TMP 
or the plain text version of this List.  

3. Delete all the extra lines in the file so that only the OS/2 Problem 
Report Form remains.  

4. Fill in all the requested information using your text editor.  

5. Save the Form to disk (as file name OS2PROB.TXT for example).  

6. Upload the file to CompuServe Mail or the Internet, and send the Form to 
IBM.  (The exact procedure will depend on the service and the software you 
You may use the Problem Report Form as many times as you need to, but 
please include only one problem per copy.  If you wish, you can use the 
Defect Report Form found on Page 493 of the OS/2 2.1 Using the Operating 
System manual instead of this form.  
  ------  Submit an OS/2 Problem Report  ------
  Customers should use this form to report a suspected OS/2 DEFECT to 
  IBM support.
  IBM employees should refer to the OS2DFECT FORUM in IBMPC for instructions on 
  how to report an OS/2 defect.
  If you have How-to or other questions about OS/2, please refer to these 
  - The OS/2 on-line help and README.
  - If you have a CompuServe ID, you may submit an item to the 
    appropriate section within the forums under IBMOS2 (GO IBMOS2).
  - Many bulletin board systems contain user forums where OS/2 users 
    share information and ideas on OS/2.
  If you have Beta problems or suggestions, please refer to the bottom of this 
  form for the proper reporting procedure.  While we appreciate your input, we do 
  not accept Beta problems through the Base defect or ES/LS support ID's.
  Customers with CompuServe ID's may report problems on CIS in IBM's PSPBETA 
  forum.  If you do NOT have a CIS ID, please send the feedback via Internet 
  to the CIS address: 76711.175@compuserve.com.
  Please provide as much information as possible on your problem.  Feel free to 
  add additional space, or remove sections of the form that are not relevant to 
  your problem.
  CONTACT PERSON: __________________________________
  PHONE NUMBER:   (___) ___-____ x____     Phone number where you can be 
  FAX NUMBER:     (___) ___-____ x____     contacted between 8-5, M-F.
  Note: Support will normally be handled electronically through 
        CompuServe mail.  IBM may contact you via telephone if it 
        appears it will expedite resolution to the problem.
  Would you rather be contacted by phone?   Y _  N _ 
  DETAILED PROBLEM DESCRIPTION - If possible, provide step-by-step recreation 
  scenario.  Also, please include any fixes or workarounds you may have already 
  Enter any error messages that occur: ________________________________
  Select the appropriate answers by placing an "X" in the space indicated.
  Can you recreate the problem?                      Y _   N _ 
  Has the problem occurred on more than one system?  Y _   N _ 
  OS/2 Version 2.1 .........:  _   CSD Level: _______
  OS/2 Version 2.0 .........:  _   CSD Level: _______
  OS/2 1.3 Standard Edition :  _   CSD Level: _______
  OS/2 1.3 Extended Edition :  _   CSD Level: _______
  NOTE - CSD = Corrective Service Diskette.
         Use the SYSLEVEL command to determine, if unknown.
  HARDWARE CONFIGURATION (provide as much as possible):
  Brand and model of PC: ____________________________________
  Microprocessor:   Intel _  Other (specify) _______________
  Type:     286 _  386SX _  386 _  486SX _   486 _ Speed: __ MHz 
  Total RAM ....:   __ MB 
  Disk drive ...: ____ MB 
  File System:   FAT _     HPFS _ 
  Manufacturer: ___________________ Model # _______
  Type: IDE _  SCSI _  MFM _  RLL _  Unknown _ 
  Manufacturer and model # of disk controller: ______________________
  Manufacturer, revision #, and date of System BIOS: __________________
  Manufacturer and model # of video adapter: __________________________
  Manufacturer and model # of display: ________________________________
  Memory installed on video adapter: _____  EGA _  VGA _  SVGA _  XGA _ 
  Diskette Drive A:  3 1/2" _  5 1/4" _ 
  Diskette Drive B:  3 1/2" _  5 1/4" _ 
  List other adapters installed:   _____________________
  TRAP INFORMATION - If a TRAP occurs and results in the 16 bit trap display 
  similar to the following, enter any of the register values that you recorded:
  SESSION TITLE: __________________________________________________
  AX=____   BX=____   CX=____   DX=____    BP= ____   SI=____   DI=____
  DS=____   ES=____   FLG=____  CS=____   IP=____   SS=____   SP=____
  MSW=____ CSLIM=____   SSLIM=___   DSLIM=___    ESLIM=____   CSACC=__
  SSACC=__ DSACC=__     ESACC=__   ERRCD=____   ERLIM=____  ERACC=__
  If a TRAP occurs and results in the 32 bit trap display similar to the 
  following, enter any of the register values that you recorded:
  TRAP ____
  ERRCD=____     ERACC=____    ERLIM=________   EAC=________  EBX=________
  ECX=________  EDX=________   ESI=________  EDI=________   EBP=________
  FLG=________   CS:EIP=____:________  CSACC=____   CSLIM=________
  SS:ESP=____:________  SSACC=____   SSLIM=________   DS=____  DSACC=____
  DSLIM=________  CR0=________   ES=____  ESACC=____  ESLIM=________
  CR2=________ FS=____  FSACC=____  FSLIM=________   GS=____  GSACC=____
  ERROR AT LOCATION ##____:________ - ____:____.   _____, ____   ________
  INTERNAL REVISION _.___,  __/__/__
  PRINTER - If this is a printer problem, please provide the following:
  Printer Vendor: __________________   Model ....: ________________
  Driver Name ..: __________________   Port Used : ________________
  Printer is attached to: Local _    LAN Server _    Host _ 
  COMMUNICATIONS MANAGER - If this is a problem with Communications Manager,
  please provide answers in this section:
  OS/2 Extended Services ............: _   CSD Level: _______
  OS/2 EE Communications Manager 1.3 : _   CSD Level: _______
  Describe your Communications Manager configuration (DFT, T-R, etc):
  LOCAL AREA NETWORK - If this is a local area network problem, please enter 
  information about the LAN involved:
  LAN SERVER:     OS/2 LAN Server Version 1.3 : _   CSD Level: ________
                  OS/2 LAN Server 2.0 Entry ..: _   CSD Level: ________
                  OS/2 LAN Server 2.0 Advanced: _   CSD Level: ________
                  OS/2 LAN Server 3.0 Entry ..: _   CSD Level: ________
                  OS/2 LAN Server 3.0 Advanced: _   CSD Level: ________
                  LAN Server 3.0 Requester....: _   CSD Level: ________
                  LAN Server 2.0 Requester....: _   CSD Level: ________
                  OS/2 1.3 Requester..........: _   CSD Level: ________
                  LS 3.0 Requester ...........: _   CSD Level: ________
                  LS 2.0 Requester ...........: _   CSD Level: ________
                  OS/2 1.3 Requester .........: _   CSD Level: ________
                  DOS Version: ____  DOS Vendor: _________________
  Is the failing system a Domain Controller?  Y _    N _ 
  Is the failing system an additional server? Y _    N _ 
  DATABASE MANAGER - If this is an OS/2 DATABASE MANAGER problem, please enter 
  information about the DataBase Manager problem below.
  SQL Error Code ....: ________
  Secondary Return Code: ________
  Error occurs when database is being accessed as:
  Stand Alone ......: Y _  N _ 
  Requester (Client): Y _  N _ 
  Database Server ..: Y _  N _ 
  Using RDS ........: Y _  N _ 
  Using LAN ........: Y _  N _ 
  If the error is occurring at a requester, can the problem be recreated 
  at the server? .....: Y _  N _ 
  Error occurs in which application?
  Query Manager.....: _ 
  LI ..............: _  (Command Line Interface)
  User Application..: _ 
  If a trap has occurred, provide the SQLABEND results:
  ready to send this OS/2 Problem Report, send the form via CISMAIL 
  to ---
  Base problems   -   Base Support,     76711,610
  ES/LS problems  -   ES/LS Support,    76711,611
  (ES = IBM Extended Services, LS = IBM LAN Server)
  Beta problems   -                     76711,175
  (FEEDBACK purposes only...you will not be contacted).
  (To send from the Internet use address 76711.610@compuserve.com,
  76711.611@compuserve.com, or 76711.175@compuserve.com, as 
  Related information: 
  (4.5) Technical Support 
  (4.7) Online Services 

(4.11) OS/2 BBSes

 What OS/2 BBSes can I dial? 

The following BBSes hold large OS/2 libraries:  

  Fernwood                 (203) 483-0348
  OS/2 Shareware           (703) 385-4325
  Bay Area OS/2            (510) 657-7948
  Gateway/2                (314) 554-9313
  Greater Chicago Online   (708) 895-4042
  OS/2 San Diego           (619) 558-9475
  OS/2 Las Vegas           (702) 433-5535
  Denver OS/2 BBS          (303) 755-6859
  OS/2 Source BBS          (303) 744-0373
  Inside Technologies BBS  (313) 283-1151
  OS/2 Woodmeister         (314) 446-0016
  IBM Germany              049-711-785-7777
  IBM Denmark              45-42-88-72-22
  OS/2 UK                  0454-633197
  IBM UK                   0256-336655
  IBM Norway               47-66-99-94-50
  OS/2 Norway              47-22-38-09-49
  OS/2 Australia           61-2-241-2466
  Abaforum (Barcelona,     34-3-589.38.88
(The monthly Worldwide OS/2 BBS Listing, available from these BBSes, lists 
others.)  The IBM PC Company BBS (modem 404-835-6600) has some 
shareware/freeware as well, along with CSDs [See (4.6) Corrective Service 
Diskettes] and the PS/2 Assistant (an invaluable resource for locating 
almost any sort of information on OS/2).  For information on IBM's OS/2 BBS 
phone 800-547-1283.  IBM Canada maintains several support BBSes:  

      (416) 946-4255 
      (514) 938-3022 
      (604) 664-6464 
      (416) 946-4244 

  Related information: 
  (3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources 
  (4.6) Corrective Service Diskettes 

(5.1) Making OS/2 Resemble Unix

 I'm a Unix wizard.  How do I make OS/2 resemble Unix? 

A great number of GNU and Unix utilities have been ported to OS/2 native 
mode and are available from (3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources.  A uucp 
package, UUPC/Extended, is available via anonymous ftp from 
sun.soe.clarkson.edu, directory pub/uupc; mail help@kew.com with questions.  

In addition, the Hamilton C Shell is available from Hamilton Labs (phone 
508-358-5715 or mail 3890321@mcimail.com).  The Thompson Toolkit, a 
Bourne-like shell, and awk are published by Thompson Automation (phone 
206-224-1639).  MKS (phone 519-884-2251 or mail pat@mks.com) publishes a 
number of standard Unix utilities for OS/2.  Hippix (Hippo Software; 
consult file pub/hippo/press.txt, available via anonymous ftp from 
morgan.cs.utah.edu, for more information) provides a set of low cost 
Unix-like command utilities (such as grep, awk, sh, and vi) along with a 
POSIX programming library.  For OS/2-specific X-Windows server support, IBM 
provides an optional package available with its TCP/IP 1.2.1 for OS/2.  The 
TCP/IP 1.2.1 base package includes a news reader as a sample application.  

DOS and Windows based utilities and aids still work fine under OS/2 2.1.  

 Related information: 
 (3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources 
 (3.8) Networking Products 

(5.2) Making OS/2 Resemble Windows

 I prefer Windows.  How do I make OS/2 2.1 resemble Windows (or OS/2 1.3)? 

Spend some time with the Workplace Shell first.  Browse the online 
Tutorial, Master Help Index, and Start Here facilties.  Consult the 
Unofficial Guide to the Workplace Shell, available from (3.2) Shareware and 
Freeware Sources.  

If you still prefer Windows-like behavior, follow the instructions 
beginning on Page 401 in the OS/2 2.1 Using the Operating System manual.  

Note that you can run the Win-OS/2 Program Manager "seamlessly" on your 
OS/2 desktop, and you can use it to launch DOS, Windows, and OS/2 
applications.  Using the Program Manager in this way can make even hard 
core Windows users more comfortable.  

 Related information: 
 (3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources 

(5.3) Recovering from Crashed Sessions

 Sometimes OS/2 2.1 will freeze when I run an application.  What do I do? 

Before rebooting with CTRL-ALT-DEL, try CTRL-ESC.  Do not hit additional 
keys, do not move the mouse.  Wait up to a minute.  Either the Window List 
or an error message should pop up.  You may close the offending application 
at that point; allow some time for it to close.  (Try ALT-ESC if you have 
disabled CTRL-ESC in that application's DOS Settings.  If you do not get 
any response, press CTRL-ESC or ALT-ESC repeatedly until the dialog 
appears.)  Note that the Workplace Shell can recycle, independent of 
running applications, if it crashes.  

If the system is badly disabled, sometimes pressing CTRL-ALT-NUMLOCK twice 
will result in a prompt to create a dump diskette.  You may do so (the 
online Command Reference describes dump diskettes), or at that point you 
may reboot with CTRL-ALT-DEL.  

To prevent applications from automatically restarting see (5.10) Clever 
Tricks.  To restore the desktop to "factory defaults," use ALT-F1 when OS/2 
2.1 starts.  See Appendix C of the OS/2 2.1 Using the Operating System 
manual for details.  Note that if you have installed an OS/2 Service Pak 
[See (4.6) Corrective Service Diskettes] the ALT-F1 sequence will restore 
your desktop to the state it was found in just before installation of the 
Service Pak.  

 Related information: 
 (4.6)  Corrective Service Diskettes 
 (5.10) Clever Tricks 

(5.4) Starting Background Processes

 How do I start a background process from the OS/2 command line? 

Look up the START and DETACH commands in the online Command Reference.  

If you wish to start a DOS session with nondefault settings, use a utility 
such as STARTD.  If you wish to start an OS/2 session from a DOS session, 
try OS2EXEC.  Both (and several others) are available from (3.2) Shareware 
and Freeware Sources.  

 Related information: 
 (3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources 

(5.5) Adobe Type Manager

 How do I add new Adobe Type Manager typefaces? 

(NOTE:  The answer to this question may be slightly inaccurate due to minor 
changes made to Adobe Type Manager under OS/2 2.1.  This note will be 
removed in a future release of the OS/2 Frequently Asked Questions List 
after any necessary corrections have been made.)  

OS/2 2.1 comes with built-in Adobe Type Manager (ATM) for OS/2 and 
Win-OS/2.  A basic set of typefaces (Courier, Helvetica, and Times New 
Roman) comes with OS/2 2.1 and is installed (if selected) for use under 
both OS/2's and Win-OS/2's ATM.  

Each typeface should come with three separate files with PFB, AFM, and INF 
extensions.  To install a typeface for use under Win-OS/2, use the ATM 
Control Panel.  The Win-OS/2 ATM Control Panel will then build a PFM file 
from the INF file.  To install a typeface for use with OS/2-specific 
applications, select OS/2 System -> System Setup -> Font Palette -> Edit 
Font -> Add.  

PFM files may converted to AFM files using the PFM2AFM utility, available 
from (3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources.  (However, these converted AFM 
files sometimes produce unusual results.)  AFM files for Adobe commercial 
typefaces are available via Internet anonymous ftp from 
ftp.mv.us.adobe.com.  Many public domain typefaces for OS/2's ATM are 
available from (3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources.  Atech Software's 
(phone 800-786-FONT) AllType and Ares Software's (phone 415-578-9090) 
FontMonger convert between TrueType and Adobe Type 1 formats.  

Typeface files may be shared by OS/2 ATM and Win-OS/2 ATM.  To do so, 
install the typefaces using both the Font Palette and Win-OS/2 ATM Control 
Panel, specifying the target path each time (most conveniently \PSFONTS).  

Note that IOPL=YES should appear in CONFIG.SYS; the modules WPPWNDRV, 
BVHSVGA, and PMATM are marked as requiring I/O privilege.  

 Related information 
 (3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources 

(5.6) Performance Tuning

 How do I tweak OS/2 2.1 for maximum performance? 

For OS/2 overall, the CONFIG.SYS parameters MAXWAIT, TIMESLICE, PRIORITY, 
PRIORITY_DISK_IO, PROTECTONLY, and cache settings (in the DISKCACHE line, 
for FAT; or IFS line, for HPFS) can be tweaked.  The swap file should be 
placed on the most used partition on the least used hard disk, and its 
location is controlled by the SWAPPATH line.  See the online Command 
Reference for details.  

FAT partitions should be periodically defragmented.  A shareware 
defragmenter for DOS called DOG (Disk OrGanizer) works well, as do many 
others.  (You can boot DOS from a floppy disk to run such a utility.)  

For the Workplace Shell, drag shadows of most often used items to the 
desktop or to folders closer to the "surface" -- opening folders takes 
time.  Drag shadows of program objects you use often (e.g.  the Win-OS/2 
full screen Program Manager) to the Startup folder.  Disable animation (go 
to OS/2 System -> System Setup -> System -> Window).  Use the faster 
Details View when opening drive and folder objects; to set Details View as 
the default, open the settings notebook for the object, select the Menu 
tab, click on ~Open, then the Settings button, then select the Default 

Try reducing the number of on screen colors or dropping down in screen 
resolution to enhance speed.  Close (not just minimize; check the Window 
List) unnecessary objects and applications.  Use the Monochrome scheme from 
the Scheme Palette -- it provides marginally faster screen updates.  
Consider adding more RAM.  

For DOS programs, run full screen instead of windowed if speed is 
important.  In DOS Settings for each application:  reduce conventional, 
XMS, DPMI, and EMS memory allocations to the bare minimums required for 
maximum performance; turn off VIDEO_RETRACE_EMULATION unless necessary; 
adjust IDLE_SENSITIVITY; turn off DOS_BACKGROUND_EXECUTION if not needed; 
change the HW_TIMER setting (particularly for games); enable 
VIDEO_FASTPASTE if possible; turn on HW_ROM_TO_RAM.  Communications 
programs should use hardware handshaking where possible (use OS/2's MODE 
COMx command if necessary), and a buffered UART can prove helpful.  (DOS 
programs running under OS/2 will not be aware of a buffered 16550AF UART.  
OS/2 virtualizes the serial port and manages the buffer itself.)  For 
faster printing set the DOS program's output port to LPTx.OS2 (where x is 
the printer port number) -- use a "print to file" option if necessary.  
Disable any DOS print spoolers; rely on OS/2's spooler instead.  Increase 
CONFIG.SYS's PRINTMONBUFSIZE values.  Other, standard steps to enhance DOS 
performance (e.g.  increasing BUFFERS in CONFIG.SYS) of course apply.  

For Windows programs, run using a full screen desktop if speed is vital.  
The Win-OS/2 Full Screen icon set up by the installation program has poor 
Settings.  For better performance perform some of the same steps outlined 
in the preceding paragraph, including VIDEO_RETRACE_EMULATION off.  The 
same printer output advice also applies.  Consider disabling the Public 
setting in the Clipboard.  If available, set VIDEO_8514A_XGA_IOTRAP to off.  
If mouse control is lost when switching to/from the Win-OS/2 session, try 

 Related information: 
 (1.3) DOS and Windows Compatibility 
 (5.7) Measuring Performance and Memory Usage 

(5.7) Measuring Performance and Memory Usage

 How do I measure OS/2 performance and memory usage? 

OS/2 does not treat system resources like DOS.  Memory is treated as a 
virtual resource, used intelligently.  For example, OS/2 will retain 
unused, "dormant" code in memory if that memory is not otherwise required, 
on the assumption that that code may be used again.  Also, all but a small 
portion of OS/2 (and most applications, no matter how many are running) may 
be paged to disk should a large amount of physical memory be required.  
Utilities which display "free" memory, then, are only useful for rough, 
relative measurements.  (Such utilities also often fail for another reason:  
many only report the largest contiguous block of free physical RAM.  And a 
few will never report more than 16 MB of RAM because they were designed for 
OS/2 1.x.)  

Similarly, utilities which purport to measure system load (e.g.  Pulse) 
should not be relied upon for definitive performance measurement.  
Subjective assessments are often much more reliable.  Pulse (and similar 
utilities) rely on a measurement of processor time allocated to a thread 
running at OS/2's lowest priority.  This method is sometimes subject to 
erroneous results.  

That said, more rigorous system performance optimization and monitoring 
tools include SPM/2 (IBM), BenchTech (Synetik, phone 303-241-1718), and 
Performance 2.0 (Clear & Simple, phone 203-658-1204).  

Note that OS/2's swap file is designed to behave with hysteresis.  It will 
not shrink in size as easily as it grows, under the assumption that swap 
space needed once may be needed again.  It should shrink given enough time 
and continued, less intense system loads.  

 Related information: 
 (5.6) Performance Tuning 

(5.8) Displaying Background Bitmaps

 My background bitmap does not display correctly.  What's wrong? 

Color bitmap images used for the Workplace Shell screen or folder 
backgrounds may not display correctly (may have distorted or missing 
colors) due to incorrect matching with OS/2's default palette.  Unlike 
Windows, OS/2 does not adjust the palette to accommodate background bitmaps 
(to keep the rest of the desktop from experiencing color distortions).  
(Palette control is now available to applications running under the 32-bit 
graphics engine with an appropriate display driver, however.)  

To remedy the problem you may use the numerous background images which have 
been specifically prepared for the Workplace Shell [available from (3.2) 
Shareware and Freeware Sources] or you may use an image editing/conversion 
utility which can create a proper, palette-matched bitmap file.  For 
example, FracInt 17.2 [available from (3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources] 
may be used to import noninterlaced GIF, Windows BMP, and PCX files and 
save them as palette matched OS/2 BMP files.  

Note that background bitmap images impose some additional overhead, taking 
up RAM and disk resources.  You should probably use them sparingly.  Also, 
if you have set a Win-OS/2 background bitmap you may experience desktop 
color distortions when running Windows programs "seamlessly."  Disable the 
Win-OS/2 background bitmap to remedy the problem.  

 Related information: 
 (2.2) SuperVGA Support 
 (3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources 

(5.9) Specific DOS Sessions

 How do I boot a real version of DOS from within OS/2 2.1? 

Booting a real version of DOS under OS/2 provides certain features that the 
OS/2 emulated DOS sessions cannot.  For example, a specific DOS session can 
provide access to devices (like CD-ROM drives) and networks for which there 
are only DOS device drivers.  A specific DOS session can also help get DOS 
applications which generate spurious "divide by zero" errors running again.  

You will be able to run one such session per hardware device.  So, for 
example, if you have your DOS networking software loaded in one specific 
DOS session, you may not start another, similar session.  

Specific DOS sessions are discussed in the online Command Reference (under 
VMDISK), the Master Help Index, and the printed Installation Guide 
(Appendix E).  You should consult those resources first.  However, if you 
are still unsure how to configure your system to run specific DOS sessions, 
follow these steps:  

1. Create a bootable DOS diskette.  Insert your DOS system diskette into 
Drive A and reboot.  When you arrive at the "A>" prompt, type FORMAT A:  /S 
and press ENTER.  (Note that you may wish to format the diskette for the 
smallest capacity possible, to save hard disk space later on.  For example, 
a 5.25 inch double density -- not high density -- diskette may be formatted 
to just 160K by adding the /1 /N:8 parameters to the FORMAT command.)  When 
prompted, insert a blank diskette into Drive A and press ENTER.  When the 
FORMAT operation is complete, remove the diskette and restart OS/2.  

2. Copy FSFILTER.SYS to the diskette.  Double click on OS/2 System -> 
Command Prompts -> OS/2 Window.  Insert the diskette you just formatted 
into Drive A. Copy the following file to your startable diskette:  

3. Set up CONFIG.SYS.  Using a text editor (like the OS/2 System Editor) 
create the file A:\CONFIG.SYS with the following lines at the top:  
Change the "C:"  drive letter if OS/2 is installed on another drive.  Add 
any other lines as required for your application (like CD-ROM or 
networking), but do not include any XMS, EMS, mouse, or memory management 
device drivers.  Make sure that everything is referenced with a drive 
letter and path, as above.  

4. Set up AUTOEXEC.BAT.  Likewise, create a file named A:\AUTOEXEC.BAT and 
make sure that the first line reads:  
changing "C:"  if necessary.  Add any additional lines (like PATH, SET 
PROMPT, and so on) as required by your application.  

5. Test your DOS diskette.  Once you have configured the CONFIG.SYS and 
AUTOEXEC.BAT files as you wish, double click on OS/2 System -> Command 
Prompts -> DOS from Drive A:.  A DOS session should start.  Test for the 
functionality you need (like access to your CD-ROM reader or network).  If 
the session is not working properly, press CTRL-ESC and shut down the 
session, edit CONFIG.SYS and/or AUTOEXEC.BAT as required, and repeat the 

6. Create the diskette image.  When you are satisfied that your specific 
DOS session diskette functions properly, go back to the OS/2 Window and 
type VMDISK A:  C:\DOS.IMG to create a diskette image file.  (If you want 
the file to be located on another drive or in another directory, change 
"C:\" accordingly.)  

7. Create a program object for your specific DOS session.  Drag a program 
object from your Templates folder to any target folder.  When the notebook 
opens, enter a single asterisk (*) in the Program Name field, then click on 
the right arrow in the lower right.  Select either DOS Window or DOS Full 
Screen for the session type, as desired.  Click on the DOS Settings button, 
and scroll down until you find the DOS_STARTUP_DRIVE property.  Enter 
C:\DOS.IMG in the field at the upper right.  (If your image file is not 
located on Drive C in the root directory, make the necessary changes.)  
Change any other DOS Settings if necessary.  Click on the Save button, then 
click on the General tab.  Give your program object a name.  Then close up 
the notebook.  
You should now be able to double click on your new program object to start 
your specific DOS session.  If you require access to your diskette drive 
(Drive A), use the FSACCESS command.  See the online Command Reference for 

When formatting your bootable DOS diskette, you may wish to use additional 
command line parameters to create a diskette with a reduced capacity.  The 
"smaller" the diskette, the less room the diskette image file created by 
VMDISK will take on your hard disk.  See your DOS manual for details, or 
use the example given above.  

  Related information: 
  (1.3) DOS and Windows Compatibility 

(5.10) Clever Tricks

 Are there any clever tricks that apply to OS/2 2.1? 

o To force DIR to display your directories in alphabetical order, with the 
subdirectories listed first, add the line 
to CONFIG.SYS; and, if you wish the same for your DOS command line 
sessions, add the same line to AUTOEXEC.BAT.  You may also wish to run 
DOSKEY to enable the command history feature.  (Shutdown and reboot for 
changes to CONFIG.SYS to take effect.)  

o Hold down SHIFT while resizing text windows to make size changes 

o If you want to configure your printer port(s) for shared access (so that 
DOS programs, for example, can use them directly), go to your printer 
object, click on it with mouse button two, select Open -> Settings, select 
the Output tab, then double click on the port you wish to share.  Check the 
appropriate box.  

o While running a DOS graphics program in a window, use the graphics cut 
and paste feature to clip a picture and paste it into the Icon Editor.  You 
can then quickly and easily create custom icons for your applications.  

o To disable the automatic application restart feature, create a 
STARTUP.CMD file in the root directory of your OS/2 boot drive with the 
following REXX script:  
    /*  */
    call RxFuncadd 'SysLoadFuncs', 'RexxUtil', 'SysLoadFuncs'
    call SysLoadFuncs 
    call SysIni 'USER', 'PM_WorkPlace:Restart', 'DELETE:'
or add the line 
to your CONFIG.SYS.  To manually disable automatic application restart when 
booting OS/2, hold down the left CTRL, left SHIFT, and F1 keys 
simultaneously from the time the mouse pointer appears until icons are 
displayed on the desktop.  

o Use the Alarms applet to automatically start programs at specified times.  

To start the Alarms applet minimized, put /I in the Optional Parameters 
section of its program object settings.  

o If you wish to dispense with the Workplace Shell (and its overhead), 
particularly on low memory systems, change the line SET RUNWORKPLACE...  in 
CONFIG.SYS to read SET RUNWORKPLACE=C:\OS2\CMD.EXE (replacing C, if 
necessary, with a different drive letter).  In fact any program with job 
control (e.g.  Enhanced Editor, HyperAccess/5) can be used as the shell.  

o To implement a small scroll back buffer for your OS/2 command line 
windows, use the command MODE CO80,102.  This procedure may be automated by 
adding /K MODE CO80,102 in the Optional Parameters section of the OS/2 
Window program object settings.  

o If you do not want any command line parameters passed to a program object 
that you start (for example, if you customize the desktop menu so that it 
has an additional option which starts a command line prompt) place a lone % 
in the Optional Parameters section of the program object settings.  If you 
do wish to pass parameters, but you want the extraneous information that 
the Workplace Shell passes to the object to be ignored, try putting && REM 
% in the Optional Parameters section.  

Timothy F. Sipples       |READ the OS/2 FAQ List 2.1A, available from
sip1@kimbark.uchicago.edu|, anonymous ftp, in /os2/all/info/faq,
Dept. of Econ., Univ.    |or from LISTSERV@BLEKUL11.BITNET (send "HELP").
of Chicago, 60637        |[Post to ONE newsgroup only AFTER reading the List.]